What can move non-IS developers towards open and collaborative development initiatives?
Keywords:Open Innovation, Open and Collaborative Development, Engagement, Theory of Planned Behaviour
Information systems (IS) have been developed to meet the increasingly complex demands of organisations and society, with a growing understanding of the need for multidisciplinary competencies. It is critical that IS development specialists work with users to conceive and build IS, especially in open and collaborative innovation initiatives. Making these initiatives accessible to non-IS developers can be an opportunity to provide solutions best suited to meet the needs of an application context and more appropriate to the expectations of their target audience. However, non-IS developers are generally unwilling to participate in initiatives for IS development, even open and collaborative ones, due to their lack of technological skills. Our research objective is to identify factors that can influence them to participate, having the Theory of Planned Behaviour as our theoretical basis. We conducted a qualitative interview-based and interpretative study of five open and collaborative development initiatives in Brazilian universities. Results show that the main (beliefs and cognitive) factors influencing non-IS developers to engage are: being able to create useful solutions to the community; professional growth; receiving help from mentors; achieving goals; receiving support from colleagues; availability of tools to facilitate software development; and experiencing new IS development opportunities. These results support organisations to establish guidelines to engage non-IS developers in open and collaborative development initiatives, improving multidisciplinarity and open innovation.
Agrifoglio, R., Lamboglia, R., Mancini, D., & Ricciardi, F. (2020). Digital Business Transformation. Springer. [GS Search]
Ajzen, I. (1991), “The theory of planned behavior”, Organizational Behavior and Human Decision Processes, Vol. 50 No. 2, pp. 179-211, doi: 10.1016/0749-5978(91)90020-T
Ajzen, I. (2002), “Perceived behavioral control, self-efficacy, locus of control, and the theory of planned behavior”, Journal of Applied Social Psychology, Vol. 32 No. 4, pp. 665-683, doi: 10.1111/j.1559-1816.2002.tb00236.x
Ajzen, I. (2008), “Consumer attitudes and behavior”, Haugtvedt, C. P., Herr, P. M. and Kardes, F. R. (Eds.), Marketing and consumer psychology series: Vol. 4 - Handbook of consumer psychology, Taylor & Francis Group/Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, New York, NY, pp. 525–548. [GS Search]
Alaoutinen, S., Heikkinen, K., and Porras, J. (2012), “Experiences of learning styles in an intensive collaborative course”, International Journal of Technology and Design Education, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 25-49, doi: 10.1007/s10798-010-9135-3
Almirall, E., Lee, M., and Majchrzak, A. (2014), “Open innovation requires integrated competition-community ecosystems: Lessons learned from civic open innovation”, Business Horizons, Vol. 57 No. 3, pp. 391-400, doi: 10.1016/j.bushor.2013.12.009
Almirall, E., and Wareham, J. (2008), “Living Labs and Open Innovation: Roles and Applicability”, eJOV: The Electronic Journal for Virtual Organizations and Networks, Vol. 10, pp. 21-46. [GS Search]
Araujo, R. M. (2017), “Information Systems and the Open World Challenges”, In: Boscarioli, C.; Araujo, R. M.; Maciel, R. S. P. “I GranDSI-BR – Grand Research Challenges in Information Systems in Brazil 2016-2026”. Special Committee on Information Systems (CE-SI). Brazilian Computer Society (SBC). ISBN: [978-85-7669-384-0]. 2017. 184p. doi: 10.5753/sbc.2884.0
Araujo, R. M., Silva, J. (2018). “An Open and Collaborative Experience (Hackathon) in the Development of Social Participation Virtual Environments at UNIRIO”. ISys - Brazilian Journal of Information Systems, 11(4), 117–152. doi: 10.5753/isys.2018.379
Auernhammer, J. (2020), “Design Research in Innovation Management: a pragmatic and human‐centered approach”, R&D Management, 50(3), 412-428. doi: 10.1111/radm.12409
Baldwin, C.; Hippel, E. V. (2011), “Modeling a Paradigm Shift: From Producer Innovation to User and Open Collaborative Innovation”, Organization Science, Vol. 22, doi: 10.1287/orsc.1100.0618
Baresi, L., Di Nitto, E., and Ghezzi, C. (2006), “Toward open-world software: Issues and challenges”, Computer, Vol. 39 No. 10, pp. 36-43, doi: 10.1109/MC.2006.362
Bekkers, V., Tummers, L. (2018) !Innovation in the public sector: Towards an open and collaborative approach”. International Review of Administrative Sciences, v. 84, n. 2, p. 209-213, 2018. doi: 10.1177/0020852318761797
Briscoe, G., and Mulligan, C. (2014), “Digital Innovation: The Hackathon Phenomenon”, Creativeworks London, available at: [link]. (accessed 6 December 2020)
Brown, T., and Wyatt. J. (2010), “Design thinking for social innovation”, Development Outreach, Vol. 12 No. 1, pp. 29-43, doi: 10.1596/1020-797X_12_1_29
Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W., and West, J. (2014), New Frontiers in Open Innovation (1st ed.), Oxford University Press, United Kingdom. [GS Search]
Dell’era, C., and Landoni, P. (2014), “Living Lab: A Methodology between User-Centered Design and Participatory Design”, Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 23 No. 2, pp. 137-154, doi: 10.1111/caim.12061
Fu, C., Zhou, M., Xuan, Q., and Hu, H. (2017), “Expert Recommendation in OSS Projects Based on Knowledge Embedding”, Doha, 2017, IWCSN 2017 - International Workshop on Complex Systems and Networks, pp. 149-155, doi: 10.1109/IWCSN.2017.8276520
Gacek, C., and Arief, B. (2004), “The many meanings of open source”, IEEE Software, Vol. 21 No.1, pp. 34-40, doi: 10.1109/MS.2004.1259206
Hacklin, F., and Wallin. M. W. (2013), “Convergence and interdisciplinarity in innovation management: a review, critique, and future directions”, The Service Industries Journal, Vol. 33 No. 7–8, pp. 774-788, doi: 10.1080/02642069.2013.740471
Han, H., Hsub, L., and Sheuc, C. (2010), “Application of the Theory of Planned Behavior to green hotel choice: Testing the effect of environmental friendly activities”, Tourism Management, Vol. 31 No. 3, pp. 325-334, doi: 10.1016/j.tourman.2009.03.013
Hilgers, D., Ihl, C. (2010), “Citizensourcing: Applying the Concept of Open Innovation to the Public Sector”, The International Journal of Public Participation, Vol. 4, pp. 1971-1976. [GS Search]
Horta, V. A. C., Ströele, V., Oliveira, J., Braga, R., David, J. M., Campos, F. (2018), “Análise de colaboração em desenvolvimento global de software”, SBBD 2018 - 33rd Brazilian Symposium on Databases. [GS Search]
Huizingh, E. K. R. E. (2011), “Open innovation: State of the art and future perspectives”, Technovation, Vol. 31 No. 1, pp. 2-9, doi: 10.1016/j.technovation.2010.10.002
Karlsen, J., and Lovlie, A. (2017), “‘You can dance your prototype if you like’: independent filmmakers adapting the hackathon”, Journal Digital Creativity, Vol. 28 No. 3, pp. 224-239, doi: 10.1080/14626268.2017.1351992
Kummitha, R. K. R. (2019), “Design thinking in social organizations: Understanding the role of user engagement”, Creativity and Innovation Management, Vol. 28 No. 1, pp. 101–112, doi: 10.1111/caim.12300
Leonidou, E., Christofi, M., Vrontis, D., and Thrassou, A. (2020), “An integrative framework of stakeholder engagement for innovation management and entrepreneurship development”, Journal of Business Research, Volume 119, pp. 245- 258, doi: 10.1016/j.jbusres.2018.11.054.
Lieberman, H.; Paternò, F.; Klann, M.; Wulf, V. (2006), “End-User Development: An Emerging Paradigm”, Human-Computer Interaction Series, Vol. 9, pp. 1-8, doi: 10.1007/1-4020-5386-X_1
Linåker, J., Runeson. P. (2020). “Public Sector Platforms going Open: Creating and Growing an Ecosystem with Open Collaborative Development”. In Proceedings of the 16th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (OpenSym 2020). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Article 10, pp. 1–10. doi: 10.1145/3412569.3412572
Meirelles, P., Wen, M., Terceiro, A., Siqueira, R., Kanashiro, L., Neri, H. (2017), “Brazilian Public Software Portal: an integrated platform for collaborative development”. In Proceedings of the 13th International Symposium on Open Collaboration (OpenSym 17). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, Article 16, pp. 1–10. doi: 10.1145/3125433.3125471
Morrongiello, C., N’Goala, G., and Kreziak, D. (2017), “Customer Psychological Empowerment as a Critical Source of Customer Engagement”, International Studies of Management & Organization, Vol. 47 No. 1, pp. 61-8, doi: 10.1080/00208825.2017.1241089
Murray, R. Caulier-Grice, J. Mulgan, G. (2010). The Open Book of Social Innovation. National Endowment for Science, Technology and the Art. [GS Search]
Nicolaci-da-Costa, A., Romão-Dias, D., and Di Luccio, F. (2009), “Uso de entrevistas on-line no método de explicitação do discurso subjacente (MEDS)”, Psicologia: Reflexão e Crítica, Vol. 22 No. 1, pp. 36-43, doi: 10.1590/S0102-79722009000100006
Olsson, A. K., Bernhard, I., Arvemo, T. and Snis, U. L. (2020), “A conceptual model for university-society research collaboration facilitating societal impact for local innovation”, European Journal of Innovation Management, doi: 10.1108/EJIM-04-2020-0159
Paternò, F. (2013), “End User Development: Survey of an Emerging Field for Empowering People”, ISRN Software Engineering, doi: 10.1155/2013/532659
Pogačara, K., and Žižek, A. (2016), “Urban Hackathon – Alternative Information Based and Participatory Approach to Urban Development”, Procedia Engineering Journal, Vol. 161, pp. 1971-1976, doi: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.08.788
Porras, J., Heikkinen, K., and Ikonen, J. (2007), “Code Camp: A Setting for Collaborative Learning of Programming”, In Advanced Technology for Learning (ATL) International Journal, Vol. 4 No. 1, pp. 43-52, doi: 10.2316/Journal.208.2007.1.208-0906
Porras, J., Knutas, A., Ikonen, J., Happonen, A., Khakurel, J., and Herala, A. (2019), “Code camps and hackathons in education - literature review and lessons learned”, Hawaii 2019, 52nd Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pp. 7750- 7759, doi: 10.24251/HICSS.2019.933
Rodrigues, R. (2019), Panorama de Hackathons no Brasil. Dissertação de M.Sc. (master’s thesis). Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Sorocaba – SP, available at: [link] (accessed 7 December 2020)
Ryymin, E., Lamberg, L., and Pakarinen, A. (2020). How to Digitally Enhance Bioeconomy Collaboration: Multidisciplinary Research Team Ideation for Technology Innovation. Technology Innovation Management Review, 10(11). doi: 10.22215/timreview/1401
Sadowski, B. (2017), “Advanced users and the adoption of high speed broadband: Results of a living lab study in the Netherlands”, Technological Forecasting & Social Change, Vol. 115, pp. 1-14, doi: 10.1016/j.techfore.2016.09.009
Schöfer, M., Maranzana, N., Aoussat, A., Bersano, G. and Buisine, S. (2018), “Distinct and combined effects of disciplinary composition and methodological support on problem solving in groups”, Creativity and Innovation management, Vol. 27, pp. 102-115, doi: 10.1111/caim.12258
Signoretti, S. Marczak, L. Salerno, A. d. Lara and R. Bastos, “Boosting Agile by Using User-Centered Design and Lean Startup: A Case Study of the Adoption of the Combined Approach in Software Development”, 2019 ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM), 2019, pp. 1-6, doi: 10.1109/ESEM.2019.8870154.
Silva, T. A. M. (2020), “Fatores Motivacionais Para a Participação de Não Especialistas em Desenvolvimento de Sistemas de Informação em Iniciativas de Desenvolvimento Aberto e Colaborativo”. Dissertação de M.Sc. (master’s thesis). Universidade Federal do Estado do Rio de Janeiro, Rio de Janeiro - RJ, available at: [link]
Simonofski, A., de Sousa, V. A., Clarinval, A., and Vanderose, B. (2020), “Participation in Hackathons: A Multi-Methods View on Motivators, Demotivators and Citizen Participation”, Cyprus 2020, 14th International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science, pp. 229-246, doi: 10.1007/978-3-030-50316-1_14
Siqueira, S., Bittencourt, I., Isotani, S., Nunes, B. P. (2017), “Information Systems based on (Linked) Open Data: From Openness to Innovation”, In: Boscarioli, C.; Araujo, R. M.; Maciel, R. S. P. “I GranDSI-BR – Grand Research Challenges in Information Systems in Brazil 2016-2026”. Special Committee on Information Systems (CE-SI). Brazilian Computer Society (SBC). ISBN: [978-85-7669-384-0]. 2017. 184p. doi: 10.5753/sbc.2884.0
Steinmetz, H., Knappstein, M., Ajzen, I., Schmidt, P., and Kabst, R. (2016), “How effective are behavior change interventions based on the theory of planned behavior? A three-level meta-analysis”, Zeitschrift für Psychologie, Vol. 224 No. 3, pp. 216- 233, doi: 10.1027/2151-2604/a000255
Tidd, J., Bessant, J., Pavitt, K. (2005) Managing Innovation: Integrating Technological, Market and Organizational Change. 3rd edition. John Wiley & Sons.
Verbeke, W., and Vackier, I. (2005), “Individual determinants of fish consumption: application of the theory of planned behaviour”, Appetite, Vol. 44 No. 1, pp. 67-82, doi: 10.1016/j.appet.2004.08.006
Vianna, M. J, S., Filho, Y. V. S, Adlerr, I. K., Lucena, B. F. e Russo, B. (2012) Design Thinking: Inovação em Negócios. Rio de Janeiro. MJV Press.
Yin, R. K. (2014), Case Study Research Design and Methods (5th ed.). SAGE Publications, USA.
Walsham, G. (2006), “Doing interpretive research”, European Journal of Information Systems, Vol. 15 No. 3, pp. 320-330, doi: 10.1057/palgrave.ejis.3000589
Zapico, J. L., Pargman, D., Ebner, H., and Eriksson, E. (2013), “Hacking sustainability: Broadening participation through Green Hackathons”, Denmark 2013, Fourth International Symposium on End-User Development, available at: [link] (accessed 7 December 2020)
Zhang, X., Wang, T., Yin, G., Yang, C., and Wang, H. (2017), “Who Will be Interested in? A Contributor Recommendation Approach for Open Source Projects”, USA 2017, 29th International Conference on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering, pp. 363-369, doi: 10.18293/SEKE2017-067
Zimmerman, M. (1995), “Psychological empowerment: Issues and illustrations”, American Journal of Community Psychology, Vol. 23, pp. 581-599, doi: 10.1007/BF02506983
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 The authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.