Software Requirements for Complex Systems: Applying Design Science Research to a Requirements Elicitation Approach with the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM)




Requirements Elicitation, Software Specification, Complex System, FRAM, Resilience Engineering


The requirement elicitation task is still considered critical, especially when dealing with complex (non linear) systems that need technological support with more resilient performance. That is, software capable of dealing with situations of uncertainty. The Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM), based on Resilience Engineering concepts, is used to model the aspects associated with “work as done”, making the unpredictability of tasks more evident. This work, as an extended version of another article published in SBSI 2021, intends to detail aspects related to the application of Design Science Research in the projection of a heuristic model aimed at eliciting software requirements for complex systems as Healthcare supported by a computational tool, the ReqFRAM. Thus, it is intended to detail the steps for this study, the proposed heuristics, and their contributions to Requirements Engineering from the concepts of Resilience Engineering.


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Author Biographies

Elaine de Carvalho, UFRJ

Degree in Computer Engineering at PUC-RIO (2005), master degree in Production Engineering at UFRJ (2009) and Computer Science at PUC-RIO (2009), ph degree in Computer Science at UFRJ (2020). Currently working as a health management analist at Fiocruz. Professor in Requirements Engineering Course at CCE / PUC-RIO. Experience in Production Engineering with emphasis in Management and Innovation, working mainly with information management and business processes engineering. Mainly activities in Computer Engineering with emphasis on IT Management and Software Engineering, working with requirements elicitation, analysis and systems development, specification of platforms and technology, resource management, systems implementation and management of IT assets. Her current research focus is the conjunction of Resilience Engineering, more specifically the modeling of systems with FRAM, and Requirements Engineering applied to complex sociotechnical systems. The research area widely explored in her research is Health

José O. Gomes, UFRJ

Full Professor at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro in the Department of Industrial Engineering and in the Graduate Program in Informatics, and Associate Dean for International Affairs to BRICS Countries. Prof. of International Doctorate at University of Florence on Global Health, Occupational Health, and International Cooperation on Mobile Populations, Collaborating Professor at Tsinghua University, Beijing, China, and Visiting Prof at Witwatersrand University, Johanesburg, South Africa. Graduated in Production Engineering at University of São Paulo, Master in Production Engineering at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro and doctorate in Production Engineering/Ergonomics & Human Factors at Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (1999) in partnership with the Conservatoire National des Arts et Métiers de Paris. He was a visiting scholar from 2002 to 2004 at the Cognitive Systems Engineering Lab (CSEL), coordinated by Prof. David Woods of the Institute for Ergonomics at The Ohio State University. Researcher at GRECO (Knowledge Engineering Research Group) and Certified Ergonomist by Abergo (Brazilian Association of Ergonomics). Vice-President of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), administrations 2015-2018 and 2018-2021, Executive Member of BRICS Plus Network on Ergonomics, Director of Abergo management 2017-2020, Director of Ulaergo, since 2013, Chair of Professional Standards and Education Committee of the International Ergonomics Association (IEA), management 2012-2015, Board Member of the Resilience Engineering Association, management 2013-2015, President of Abergo, 2009-2011, 2012-2014, and board member 2015-2023, President of the Latin American Union of Ergonomics in management 2010-2013. The areas of teaching, research and extension include engineering of human factors and ergonomics, work safety, cognitive and resilience engineering in complex systems such as emergency, aviation, oil industry, besides being the author of several publications in journals, books and conferences.

Alessandro Jatobá, Fiocruz

For the last ten years, I’ve been conducting research on Public Health, focused on health systems resilience, governance arrangements and the social dynamics of health from a global systems perspective. The outcomes of my research enable healthcare providers to draw solutions that encompass fair and sustainable policy, process, and technology applied to the management of resources and coordination of care to respond to current and emerging health needs, especially in low and middle-income countries.

Mônica F. Silva, UFRJ

Ph.D. in Business from COPPEAD/UFRJ (2006). Systems and Computer Engineering Master at COPPE/UFRJ (1998). Project Management MBA at NCE/UFRJ (2001). Computer Science Bachelor from the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), concluded with an academic dignity cum laude degree (1988). Full Professor at Postgraduate Program in Informatics (PPGI) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ). Coordinator of the HumânITas Research Group (PPGI/UFRJ), that, since 2006, encourages a more human perspective on the development and use of information technologies, by promoting reflections and new practices in researchers, companies, IT users and the government. Collaborating Researcher at the research groups GETI (Strategic IT Management) and CORES (Social Computing and Social Network Analysis), both linked to PPGI/UFRJ. She was Director of the Extension Activities Area at NCE/UFRJ (2016/2019). She has experience in the areas of Computer Science and Business, with an emphasis on Information Technology Management. She works mainly on the following themes: strategy and information systems, scientific research methodology and adoption of technology with emphasis on education and health. More information can be obtained at

Paulo Victor R. Carvalho, UFRJ

Researcher at the Nuclear Engineering Institute of the National Nuclear Energy Commission and professor in the Postgraduate Program in Computer Science (PPGI / UFRJ) and Environmental Engineering (PEA / UFRJ) at the Federal University of Rio de Janeiro, and at the Nuclear Science and Technology Institute of Nuclear Engineering (PPGIEN). He holds a degree in Electronic Engineering from UFRJ (1978), a master's degree in Electrical Engineering (1982) and a PhD in Production Engineering from COPPE / UFRJ (2003). He has research interests in nuclear instrumentation, ergonomics, cognitive engineering and resilience engineering, working on topics such as modeling and safety of complex systems, information and communication technology, human-system interfaces design, applied in several domains, such as nuclear and petrochemical industry, emergency and disaster management, public health, among others.


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How to Cite

A. Carvalho, E., O. Gomes, J., Jatobá, A., F. Silva, M., & R. Carvalho, P. V. (2022). Software Requirements for Complex Systems: Applying Design Science Research to a Requirements Elicitation Approach with the Functional Resonance Analysis Method (FRAM). ISys - Brazilian Journal of Information Systems, 15(1), 7:1–7:30.



Extended versions of selected articles