Reference Architecture for Systems of Systems: a Systematic Mapping
Keywords:Systems-of-Systems;, Reference Architecture, Systematic Mapping
Systems-of-Systems (SoS) are a class of complex systems that often involve Information Systems as their constituents. However, when systems are required to become constituents of a SoS, they should meet specific requirements. In this sense, a reference architecture (RA) can bring together the requirements and design details necessary to enable a system to become a SoS constituent, in addition to assuring SoS quality and potential for reusing the designed architectures. An investigation of the state of the art in the field can, therefore, help to understand how SoS has in fact benefited from RAs and what still needs to be progressed. The main contribution of this article is to present the results of a systematic mapping on the RAs proposed in SoS context. 23 studies out of 361 studies retrieved from 5 bases were included for analysis and extraction. Results reveal, among other information, the domains in which RAs are being applied in SoS, such as smart grids, as well as how they have been developed, which involve the use of reference models, architecture frameworks and design processes.
Assaad, M. A., Talj, R., Charara, A. (2019). Autonomous driving as system of systems: Roadmap for accelerating development, in SoSE. IEEE.
Boscarioli, C., Araujo, R. M., Maciel, R. S. P. (2017) I GranDSI-BR – Grand Research Challenges in Information Systems in Brazil 2016-2026. Special Committee on Information Systems (CE-SI). Brazilian Computer Society (SBC). ISBN: [978- 85-7669-384-0]. 184p.
Bures, T., Hnetynka, P., Plasil, F. (2014). Strengthening Architectures of Smart CPS by Modeling Them As Runtime Product-lines, in 17th International ACM Sigsoft Symposium on Component-based Software Engineering, pp. 91–96.
Cadavid, H., Andrikopoulos, V., Avgeriou, P. (2020). Architecting systems of systems: A tertiary study, in Information and Software Technology, Volume 118, February 2020.
Carbon, R., Johann, G., Muthig, D., Naab, M. (2008). A method for collaborative development of systems of systems in the office domain, in 12th International IEEE Enterprise Distributed Object Computing Conference, pp. 339-345.
Chang, C. F., Tan, P. H., Tam, S. K. (2009). Managing systems of systems interoperability - federated soa and reference architectures, in INCOSE International Symposium, pp. 199-212.
Bondar, S., Hsu, J.C., Pfouga, A., Stjepandić, J. (2017). Agile digital transformation of System-of-Systems architecture models using Zachman framework, Journal of Industrial Information Integration, v. 7: 33-43.
Delsing, J. (2017). Local Cloud Internet of Things Automation: Technology and Business Model Features of Distributed Internet of Things Automation Solutions, in IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, 8-21.
Felizardo, K. R., Nakagawa, E. Y., Fabbri, S. C. P. F., Ferrari, F. C. (2017). Revisão sistemática da literatura em Engenharia de Software: teoria e prática. Elsevier, first edition.
Garces, L., Nakagawa, E. Y. (2017). A process to establish, model and validate missions of systems-of-systems in reference architectures, in Symposium on Applied Computing, ACM.
Gatica, D., Ponce, F., Noël, R., Astudillo, H. (2018). Characterizing Architectural Evaluations and Identifying Quality Attributes addressed in Systems-of-Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study, in 37th International Conference of the Chilean Computer Science Society (SCCC).
Graciano Neto, V. V., Cavalcante, E., El Hachem, J., Santos, D. S. (2017a). On the Interplay of Business Process Modeling and Missions in Systems-of-information Systems, in JSOS at ICSE. IEEE.
Graciano Neto, V. V., dos Santos, R. P., Viana, D., Araujo, R. (2017b). Towards a Conceptual Model to Understand Software Ecosystems Emerging from Systems-of-Information Systems. In Software Ecosystems, Sustainability and Human Values in the Social Web (pp. 1-20). Springer, Cham.
Graciano Neto, V. V., Oquendo, F., Nakagawa, E. Y. (2017c). Smart systems-of-information systems: Foundations and an assessment model for research development. In: I GranDSI-BR: Grand Research Challenges in Information Systems in Brazil 2016-2026. (pp. 13-24). Sociedade Brasileira de Computação.
Graciano Neto, V. V., Horita, F., Cavalcante, E., Rohling, A, El-Hachem, J., Santos, D., Nakagawa, E. Y. (2018). A Study on Goal Specification for Systems-of-Information Systems: Design Principles and a Conceptual Model, in SBSI. ACM.
Graciano Neto, V. V., Lebtag, B. G. A., Teixeira, P. G., Batista, P. E. P., Lopes, V. C., El-Hachem, J., Buisson, J., Oquendo, F., Fernandes, J., Ferreira, F., Santos, R. P., Viana, D., Cavalcante, E., Kassab. M., Mohsin, A., Oliveira, R., Neves, V., Nakagawa, E. Y. (2021). Expanding Frontiers: Settling an Understanding on Systems-of-Information Systems. Technical Report Available at: https://arxiv.org/abs/2103.14100.
Guessi, M., Oliveira, L.B.R., Nakagawa, E.Y. (2010). Representation of Reference Architectures: A Systematic Review. In: Proceedings of the 23rd International Conference on Software Engineering & Knowledge Engineering (SEKE'2011), Eden Roc Renaissance, Miami Beach, USA, 1-6.
Guessi, M., Graciano Neto, V. V., Bianchi, T., Felizardo, K. R., Oquendo, F., Nakagawa, E. Y. (2015). A Systematic Literature Review on the Description of Software Architectures for Systems of Systems, in 30th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, 1433–1440.
Kitchenham, B., Brereton, O. P., Budgen, D., Turner, M., Bailey, J., Linkman, S. (2009). Systematic literature reviews in software engineering–a systematic literature review. Information and software technology, 51(1):7–15.
Lana, C. A., Guessi, M., Antonino, P. O., Rombach, D., Nakagawa, E. Y. (2019). A Systematic Identification of Formal and Semi-Formal Languages and Techniques for Software-Intensive Systems-of-Systems Requirements Modeling, in IEEE Systems Journal, Volume: 13, pp. 2201 - 2212.
Lee, H., Hong, S. G., Lee, K. B. (2018). An Internet of Things system architecture for aiding firefighters in the scene of disaster, in Journal of Information Processing Systems.
Lopes, A. J. and Lezama, R., Pineda, R. (2011). Model Based Systems Engineering for Smart Grids as systems of systems, in Procedia Computer Science, pp. 441-450.
Maciel, R. S. P., David, J. M. N., Claro, D., Braga, R. (2017). Full interoperability: Challenges and opportunities for future information systems. Sociedade Brasileira de Computação.
Maier, M. W. (1998). Architecting principles for systems‐of‐systems. Systems Engineering: The Journal of the International Council on Systems Engineering, 1(4), 267-284.
Mendes, A., Loss, S., Cavalcante, E., Lopes, F., Batista T. (2018). Mandala: an Agent-Based Platform to Support Interoperability in Systems-of-systems, in 6th SESoS. ACM.
Morkevicius, A., Bisikirskiene, L., Bleakley, G. (2017). Using a systems of systems modeling approach for developing Industrial Internet of Things applications, in SoSE. IEEE.
Nakagawa, E. Y., Oquendo, F., Becker, M. (2012). RAModel: A Reference Model for Reference Architectures. WICSA/ECSA 2012. pp. 297-301.
Nakagawa, E. Y., Guessi, M., Maldonado, J. C., Feitosa, D., Oquendo, F. (2014). Consolidating a process for the design, representation, and evaluation of reference architectures. In 2014 IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture (pp. 143-152). IEEE.
Nakagawa, E.Y., Allian, A., Oliveira, B., Sena, B., Paes, C., Lana, C., Feitosa, D., Santos, D., Zaniro, D., Dias, D., Horita, F., Affonso, F. J., Abdalla, G., Vicente, I., Duarte, L., Felizardo, K., Garcés, L., Oliveira, L., Gonçalves, M., Morais, M. G., Guessi, M., Silva, N., Bianchi, T., Volpato, T., Graciano Neto, V. V., Zani, V., Manzano, W. (2017). Software Architecture and Reference Architecture of Software-intensive Systems and Systems-of-Systems: Contributions to the State of the Art, USP, São Carlos, SP.
Neureiter, C., Uslar, M., Engel, D., Lastro, G. (2016). A Standards-Based Approach for Domain Specific Modelling of Smart Grid System Architectures, in SoSE. IEEE.
Park, S., Park, Y.B. (2016). ITE Arbitrator: A Reference Architecture Framework for Sustainable IT Ecosystems, in SESoS. IEEE.
Pavlovic, M., Gawrondeutsch, T., Neureiter, C., Diwold, K. (2016). SGAM Business Layer for a Local Flexibility Market, in CIRED Workshop. IEEE.
Percivall, G. S., Alameh, N. S., Caumont, H., Moe, K. L., Evans, J. D. (2013). Improving disaster management using earth observations-GEOSS and CEOS activities, in IEEE Journal of Selected Topics in Applied Earth Observations and Remote Sensing, pp. 1368-1375.
Pérez, J., Díaz, J., Garbajosa, J., Yagüe, A., Gonzalez, E., Lopez-Perea, M. (2015). Towards a Reference Architecture for Large-scale Smart Grids System of Systems, in Third International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems, pp. 5-11.
Petersen, K., Vakkalanka, S., Kuzniarz, L. (2015). Guidelines for conducting systematic mapping studies in software engineering: An update. Information and Software Technology, 64:1–18.
Rohling, A. J., Graciano Neto, V. V., Ferreira, M. , G. V., dos Santos, W. A., Nakagawa, E. Y. (2019). A reference architecture for satellite control systems. Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering, v. 15, n. 2, pp. 139-153.
Seghiri, A., Belala, F., Teniou, A. A. (2018). Towards software architectural description for systems of systems: Case of a maritime transport SoS, in International Conference on Internet and e-Business. ACM.
Teixeira, P. G., Lopes, V. H. L., Dos Santos, R. P., Kassab, M., Graciano Neto, V. V. (2019, May). The status quo of systems-of-information systems. In 2019 IEEE/ACM 7th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems (SESoS) and 13th Workshop on Distributed Software Development, Software Ecosystems and Systems-of-Systems (WDES) (pp. 34-41). IEEE.
Valle, P. H. D., Garcés, L. Guessi, M., Martínez-Fernández, S., Nakagawa, E.Y. (2020). Approaches for Describing Reference Architectures: A Systematic Mapping Study, in XXIII Congresso Ibero-Americano em Engenharia de Software (CIBSE).
Volpato, T., Oliveira, B. R. N., Rodriguez, L. M. G., Capilla, R., Nakagawa, E. Y. (2017). Two perspectives on reference architecture sustainability. ECSA (Companion), pp. 188-194.
Yuan, E., Wenzel, G. (2005). Assured counter-terrorism information sharing using Attribute Based Information Security (ABIS), in IEEE Aerospace Conference, pp. 1-12.
Yuanfang, W, Hongren, Z., Zhongliang, J. (2008). A framework of municipal management information systems (MMIS) in e-government, in IEEE International Technology Management Conference (ICE), pp. 1-8.
Walewski, J. W., Heiles, J. (2016). Using the view model to contextualize and explain system-of-systems architecture models, in 11th System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE), pp. 1-6.
Zhu , S. T., Wong , R. W., McDonough , C. A. , Roy, R. R., Fine, J. M. e Reiling, J. P. (2009). Army enterprise architecture technical reference model for system interoperability, in IEEE Military Communications Conference, pp. 1-6.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 The authors
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.