Virtual look around: comparing presence, cybersickness and usability for virtual tours across different devices
Keywords:user experience, suitability evaluation questionnaire, virtual tour, webxr, ux
Virtual Reality has become readily available in the last few years through different devices, from desktop computers to headmounted displays (HMD). Also, virtual tours became popular with 360º panoramic photographs and video clips on online social media, so people could visit remote locations without being exposed to crowded transportation or long travels. Also, virtual tours demonstrate considerable potential as a form of escapism and even for remote teaching. Since we lack studies that evaluate the User Experience (UX) in virtual tours on different devices, this article aims to compare aspects of the User Experience (regarding sense of presence, cybersickness, and usability) in a virtual tour website developed in WebXR across different devices. To achieve our objective, we developed a virtual tour based on 360º pictures using WebXR API and React 360 framework and conducted an experiment with 41 undergraduate students using four different devices: a laptop computer, a smartphone, a Google Cardboard headset, and a Samsung Gear VR HMD. We evaluated users’ perceptions by adapting and translating the Suitability Evaluation Questionnaire (SEQ) and users’ performance by measuring the time to fulfill a set of tasks. The main findings from this study include that (i) the overall selfreported experience using Google Cardboard is worse than using other devices, (ii) the users’ performance is quite similar between the platforms, (iii) there is evidence of unexpected cybersickness symptoms in tests with the smartphone, and (iv) the development of a plausible hypothesis concerning low usability having an effect upon the sense of presence. Additional contributions of our research are the adaptation, translation into Portuguese, psychometric analysis, and revised scoring procedures of the SEQ.
Avila, M. L., Stinson, J., Kiss, A., Brandão, L. R., Uleryk, E., and Feldman, B. M. (2015). A critical review of scoring options for clinical measurement tools. BMC Research Notes, 8(1):1–11.
Bandalos, D. L. and Finney, S. J. (2010). Factor analysis. exploratory and confirmatory. In Hancock, G. R. and Mueller, R. O., editors, The reviewer’s guide to quantitative methods in the social science, pages 93–114. Routledge, New York.
Bloom, L. B. (2020). Ranked: The world’s 15 best virtual tours to take during coronavirus. Available at https://www.forbes.com/sites/laurabegleybloom/2020/04/27/ranked-worlds-15-best-virtual-tours-coronavirus.
Boland, P. and Johnson, C. (1996). Archaeology as computer visualization: virtual tours of dudley castle c. 1550. In Imaging the Past: Electronic Imaging and Computer Graphics in Museums and Archaeology, pages 227–234. British Museum Press.
Butcher, P. W. and Ritsos, P. D. (2017). Building immersive data visualizations for the web. In 2017 International Conference on Cyberworlds (CW), pages 142–145. IEEE, IEEE Conference Publications.
CatracaLivre, R. (2020). Passeios virtuais mostram as belezas dos destinos brasileiros. Available at https://catracalivre.com.br/viagem-livre/passeios-virtuais-mostram-as-belezas-dos-destinos-brasileiros/.
Cho, Y.-H., Wang, Y., and Fesenmaier, D. R. (2002). Searching for experiences: The webbased virtual tour in tourism marketing. Journal of Travel & Tourism Marketing, 12:1–17.
Chow, M. (2016). Determinants of presence in 3D virtual worlds: A structural equation modelling analysis. Australasian Journal of Educational Technology, 32(1):1–18.
Costa, R. M. and Ribeiro, M. W. S. (2009). Aplicações de Realidade Virtual e Aumentada. Editora SBC – Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
Costello, A. B. and Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research & Evaluation, 10(7):1 – 9.
Coster, W. and Mancini, M. (2015). Recommendations for translation and crosscultural adaptation of instruments for occupational therapy research and practice. Revista De Terapia Ocupacional Da Universidade De São Paulo, 26(1):50–57.
Gil-Gomez, J.-A., Pilar, M.-H., Albiol, S., Carmen, A. V., Hermenegildo, G.G., and JoséAntonio, L. Q. (2013). Seq: Suitability evaluation questionnaire for virtual rehabilitation systems. application in a virtual rehabilitation system for balance rehabilitation. In Int. Conf. on Pervasive Computing Technologies for Healthcare and Workshops, pages 335–338.
Gwet, K. L. (2008). Computing interrater reliability and its variance in the presence of high agreement. British Journal of Mathematical and Statistical Psychology, 61(1):29–48.
Gwet, K. L. (2016). Handbook of InterRater Reliability. Advanced Analytics, LLC, Gaithersburg, USA, 4 edition.
Hutz, C. S., Bandeira, D. R., and Trentini, C. M., editors (2015). Psicometria. Artmed, Porto Alegre, RS, Brazil.
Jerald, J. (2016). The VR Book: HumanCentered Design for Virtual Reality. ACM Books, Morgan & Claypool, Williston, VT, USA.
Kennedy, R. S., Lane, N. E., Berbaum, K. S., and Lilienthal, M. G. (1993). Simulator sickness questionnaire: An enhanced method for quantifying simulator sickness. The International Journal of Aviation Psychology, 3(3):203–220.
Kizony, R., Raz, L., Katz, N., Weingarden, H., and Weiss, P. L. T. (2005). Videocapture virtual reality system for patients with paraplegic spinal cord injury. Journal of Rehabilitation Research & Development, 42(5):595–609.
Klippel, A., Zhao, J., Jackson, K. L., Femina, P. L., Stubbs, C., Wetzel, R., Blair, J., Wallgrün, J. O., and Oprean, D. (2019). Transforming earth science education through immersive experiences: Delivering on a long held promise. Journal of Educational Computing Research, 57(7):1745–1771.
LaViola Jr., J. J. (2000). A discussion of cybersickness in virtual environments. SIGCHI Bull., 32(1):47–56.
Lee, G. A., Dünser, A., Nassani, A., and Billinghurst, M. (2013). Antarcticar: An outdoor ar experience of a virtual tour to antarctica. In Int. Symp. on Mixed and Augmented Reality, pages 28–37. IEEE.
Nunnally, J. and Bernstein, I. (1994). Psychometric Theory. MacGrawHill, New York, NY, USA, 3rd edition.
Oprean, D., Wallgrün, J. O., Klippel, A., Zhao, J., Duarte, J., and Verniz, D. (2018). Developing and evaluating vr field trips. In Fogliaroni, P., Ballatore, A., and Clementini, E., editors, Int. Conf. on Spatial Information Theory (COSIT 2017), pages 105–110. Springer International Publishing.
Osman, A. and Wahab, N. A. (2011). Virtual excursions for tiny fingers: A shared experience. In International Conference on Information Science and Applications, pages 1–5. IEEE.
Osman, A., Wahab, N. A., and Ismail, M. H. (2009). Development and evaluation of an interactive 360º virtual tour for tourist destinations. Journal of Information Technology Impact, 9:173–182.
Pallant, J. (2016). SPSS Survival Manual. McGrawHill Education, Berkshire, England, 6 edition.
Parisi, T. (2015). Learning Virtual Reality. O’Reilly Media, Sebastopol, CA, USA.
Pujol, L. (2004). Archaeology, museums and virtual reality Digithum, 6:none.
Reise, S. P., Bonifay, W. E., and Haviland, M. G. (2013). Scoring and modeling psychological measures in the presence of multidimensionality. Journal of Personality Assessment, 95(2):129–140.
Sathe, V., Gupta, P., Kaushik, K., Bhat, S., and Deshpande, S. (2017). Virtual reality websites (vr web). In International Conference of Electronics, Communication and Aerospace Technology, volume 1, pages 647–652. IEEE.
Sundar, S. S., Kang, J., and Oprean, D. (2017). Being there in the midst of the story: How immersive journalism affects our perceptions and cognitions. Cyberpsychology, Behavior, and Social Networking, 20(11):672–682.
Tarcia, L. (2020). Projeto minas faz ciência 360. Available at https://minasfazciencia.com.br/infantil/2020/04/13/projeto-minas-faz-ciencia-360.
Ye, Q., Hu, W., and Zhou, H. (2017). Implementation of webvrbased laboratory for control engineering education based on ncslab framework. 2017 36th Chinese Control Conference (CCC), pages 7880–7885.
Zaiontz, C. (2018). Latin squares design. Available at http://www.real-statistics.com/design-of-experiments/latinsquares-design.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2021 Jean Felipe Patikowski Cheiran, Adriel Rodrigues, Marcelo Soares Pimenta
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
JIS is free of charges for both authors and readers, and all papers published by JIS follow the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license.