Exploring Non-conventional Sensorimotor Devices in a Virtual Bicycle Simulator
Keywords:Bicycle simulator, Virtual reality, Cyber sickness, Non-conventional devices, User experience
This work presents SimBike, a virtual bicycle simulator that uses non-conventional motor, sensory and sensorimotor devices to provide greater user involvement and comfort. SimBike aims to recreate the activity of riding a bicycle by exploring possibilities of electronic devices, such as making curves with the handlebar or body-weight, pedaling, braking, among others. It also offers feedback commonly expected by the rider, such as wind sensation varying according to speed and the sensation of trepidation on uneven terrain. The simulator was evaluated with 16 users, obtaining positive results regarding user experience, comfort, and immersion. As future work, we propose to improve some features to adapt the simulator for all users, regardless of their weight and height.
Altmayer Sport (2019). Al04 - alt cicle - rolo de treinamento. https://www.altmayer.com.br/produtos/ver/40/al04-alt-cicle-rolo-de-treinamento. Accessed: 2019-05-05.
Arduino AG (2020). What is arduino? https://www.arduino.cc/en/Guide/Introduction. Accessed:2020-07-11.
Bolton, J., Lambert, M., Lirette, D., and Unsworth, B. (2014). Paperdude: A virtual reality cycling exergame. Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems - Proceedings, pages 475–478.
Boulanger, P., Pournajib, A., Mott, W., and Schaeffer, S. (2017). A low-cost virtual reality bike for remote cardiac rehabilitation. In Barbic, J., D’Cruz, M., Latoschik, M. E., Slater, M., and Bourdot, P., editors, Virtual Reality and Augmented Reality, pages 155–166, Cham. Springer International Publishing.
Carvalho, M. R., da Costa, R. T., and Nardi, A. E. (2011). Simulator sickness questionnaire: Tradução e adaptação transcultural. In Jornal Brasileiro de Psiquiatria, volume 60, pages 247–252.
Chavarrias, M., Carlos-Vivas, J., Collado-Mateo, D., and Perez-Gomez, J. (2019). Health benefits of indoor cycling: A systematic review. Medicina, 55:452.
de Souza e Almeida, R., Cherullo, R., Radetic, D., Francy M. Silva-Calpa, G., and Barbosa Raposo, A. (2019). Exploring Motor and Sensory Devices in a Bicycle Simulator. In 2019 21st Symposium on Virtual and Augmented Reality (SVR), number November, pages 232–241. IEEE.
Freina, L. and Ott, M. (2015). A literature review on immersive virtual reality in education: State of the art and perspectives. In Proceedings of the 11th International Scientific Conference eLearning and Software for Education(eLSE), pages 133–141.
Fuchs, P., Burkhardt, J.-M., and Lourdeaux, D. (2011). Theoretical and pragmatic approach to virtual reality. In Fuchs,P., Moreau, G., and Guitton, P., editors, Virtual Reality: Concepts and Technologies, pages 12–15. CRC Press.
Kennedy, R. and Frank, L. (1985). A review of motion sickness with special reference to simulator sickness. Technical Report 81-C-0105-16, Naval Training Equipment Center, Orlando, FL.
O’Hern, S., Oxley, J., and Stevenson, M. (2017). Validation of a bicycle simulator for road safety research. Accident Analysis and Prevention, 100:53–58.
Pedroli, E., Greci, L., Colombo, D., Serino, S., Cipresso, P., Arlati, S., Mondellini, M., Boilini, L., Giussani, V., Gou-lene, K., Agostoni, M., Sacco, M., Stramba-Badiale, M.,Riva, G., and Gaggioli, A. (2018). Characteristics, Usability, and Users Experience of a System Combining Cognitive and Physical Therapy in a Virtual Environment: Positive Bike. Sensors, 18(7):2343.
Pepper, N. (2019). The zen of communication. https://natepepperdotcom.wordpress.com/2019/03/19/virtual-reality-cycling-is-finally-here-and-it-is-amazing/. Accessed: 2020-07-11.
Rakhmatov, R., Abdulali, A., Hassan, W., Kim, M., and Jeon, S. (2018). Virtual reality bicycle with data-driven vibrotactile responses from road surface textures. In IEEE Games, Entertainment, Media Conference (GEM), pages 1–9.
Schubert, T., Friedmann, F., and Regenbrecht, H. (2001). The experience of presence: Factor analytic insights. Presence,10:266–281.
Schulzyk, O., Bongartz, J., Bildhauer, T., Hartmann, U., Goebel, B., Herpers, R., and Reinert, D. (2007). A Bicycle Simulator Based on a Motion Platform in a Virtual Reality Environment — FIVIS Project. In Advances in Medical Engineering, pages 323–328. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, Berlin, Heidelberg.
Slater, M. and Wilbur, S. (1997). A framework for immersive virtual environments (five): Speculations on the role of presence in virtual environments.Presence: Teleoperators and Virtual Environments, 6(6):603–616.
Sun, C. and Qing, Z. (2018). Design and construction of a virtual bicycle simulator for evaluating sustainable facilities design. Advances in Civil Engineering, 2018:1–10. Unity Technologies (2019). Unity core platform.https://unity.com/products/core-platform. Accessed:2019-07-15.
How to Cite
JIS is free of charges for both authors and readers, and all papers published by JIS follow the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license.