Simulation-supported development for cooperative Multi-UAV Systems with the Mysterio framework




MultiUAV Systems, Frameworks, Computer Simulation


Over the years, UAVs (also known as drones) have been growing in studies and applications to solve diverse problems. Due to the complexity of these problems, dealing with just one UAV may not be enough, but using several UAVs together to work cooperatively increases its capacities, thus boosting innovative solutions. However, developing cooperative Multi-UAV systems is not trivial, and reuse support is usually limited to low-level implementation. This work presents a framework for Multi-UAVs, called Mysterio, which provides an underlying software architecture with essential Multi-UAV components, enabling the reuse of design and code so that engineers can instantiate it to carry out specific missions by making UAVs work in cooperation. We also present four instances of the framework to evaluate Mysterio’s effectiveness in different scenarios. Finally, we discuss the framework’s potential to provide and support design and code reuse to develop Cooperative Multi-UAVs systems for different application scenarios. The results showed the potential to develop multi-UAV systems using the proposed framework. Additionally, we extend our previous work bringing conceptual evolution and advances in the architecture and the framework. Finally, this evolution extends the framework API to support computer simulations of UAV systems based on the OMNeT++ simulator. This API is suitable for Single-UAV and Multi-UAV systems and has already been adapted to communicate with base stations implemented through the Mysterio Framework.


Download data is not yet available.


Arafat, M. Y., & Moh, S. (2019). Routing protocols for unmanned aerial vehicle networks: A survey. IEEE Access, 7, 99694–99720.

Asmare, E., Gopalan, A., Sloman, M., Dulay, N., & Lupu, E. (2012). Self-management framework for mobile autonomous systems. Journal of Network and Systems Management, 20(2), 244–275.

Avizienis, A., Laprie, J.-C., Randell, B., & Landwehr, C. (2004). Basic concepts and taxonomy of dependable and secure computing. IEEE Transactions on Dependable and Secure Computing, 1(1), 11–33.

Bandala, A. A., Dadios, E. P., Vicerra, R. R. P., & Lim, L. A. G. (2014). Swarming algorithm for unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) quadrotors – swarm behavior for aggregation, foraging, formation, and tracking. Journal of Advanced Computational Intelligence and Intelligent Informatics, 18(5), 745–751.

Bass, L., Clements, P., & Kazman, R. (2012). Software architecture in practice (third ed., p. 624).

Bekmezci, I., Sahingoz, O. K., & Temel, Ş. (2013). Flying ad-hoc networks (FANETs): A survey. Ad Hoc Networks, 11(3), 1254–1270.

Briggs, F. (2012). UAV software architecture. In Infotech@ Aerospace 2012, page 2539. Researchgate.

Cai, G., Chen, B. M., & Lee, T. H. (2011). Unmanned rotorcraft systems. Springer Science & Business Media.

Cavalcante, A. S. N., & De França, B. B. N. (2022). The mysterio framework for developing cooperative multi-UAV systems. In Proceedings of the 16th Brazilian Symposium on Software Components, Architectures, and Reuse, pages 11–19.

Chebotar, Y., Handa, A., Makoviychuk, V., Macklin, M., Issac, J., Ratliff, N., & Fox, D. (2019). Closing the sim-to-real loop: Adapting simulation randomization with real-world experience. In 2019 International Conference on Robotics and Automation (ICRA), pages 8973–8979. IEEE.

Chen, H., Wang, X.-m., & Li, Y. (2009). A survey of autonomous control for UAV. In 2009 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Computational Intelligence, volume 2, pages 267–271. IEEE.

Daniel, K., Dusza, B., Lewandowski, A., & Wietfeld, C. (2009). Airshield: A system-of-systems MUAV remote sensing architecture for disaster response. In 2009 3rd Annual IEEE Systems Conference, pages 196–200. IEEE.

Doherty, P., Granlund, G., Kuchcinski, K., Sandewall, E., Nordberg, K., Skarman, E., & Wiklund, J. (2000). The WITAS unmanned aerial vehicle project. In ECAI, pages 747–755.

Gupta, L., Jain, R., & Vaszkun, G. (2015). Survey of important issues in UAV communication networks. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 18(2), 1123–1152.

Hayat, S., Yanmaz, E., & Muzaffar, R. (2016). Survey on unmanned aerial vehicle networks for civil applications: A communications viewpoint. IEEE Communications Surveys & Tutorials, 18(4), 2624–2661.

Hong, C., & Shi, D. (2018). A control system architecture with cloud platform for multi-UAV surveillance. In 2018 IEEE SmartWorld, Ubiquitous Intelligence & Computing, Advanced & Trusted Computing, Scalable Computing & Communications, Cloud & Big Data Computing, Internet of People and Smart City Innovation (SmartWorld/SCALCOM/UIC/ATC/CBDCom/IOP/SCI), pages 1095–1097. IEEE.

Hrabia, C.-E., Hessler, A., Xu, Y., Brehmer, J., & Albayrak, S. (2018). Efffeu project: Efficient operation of unmanned aerial vehicles for industrial firefighters. In Proceedings of the 4th ACM Workshop on Micro Aerial Vehicle Networks, Systems, and Applications, pages 33–38.

Kekec, T., Ustundag, B. C., Guney, M. A., Yildirim, A., & Unel, M. (2013). A modular software architecture for UAVs. In IECON 2013-39th Annual Conference of the IEEE Industrial Electronics Society, pages 4037–4042. IEEE.

Krichen, L., Fourati, M., & Fourati, L. C. (2018). Communication architecture for unmanned aerial vehicle systems. In International Conference on Ad-Hoc Networks and Wireless, pages 213–225. Springer.

Kuriki, Y., & Namerikawa, T. (2014). Consensus-based cooperative formation control with collision avoidance for a multi-UAV system. In 2014 American Control Conference, pages 2077–2082. IEEE.

Mahmoud, S. Y. M., & Mohamed, N. (2015). Toward a cloud platform for UAV resources and services. In 2015 IEEE Fourth Symposium on Network Cloud Computing and Applications (NCCA), pages 23–30. IEEE.

Motlagh, N. H., Taleb, T., & Arouk, O. (2016). Low-altitude unmanned aerial vehicles-based Internet of Things services: Comprehensive survey and future perspectives. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 3(6), 899–922.

Navarro, I., & Matía, F. (2012). An introduction to swarm robotics. ISRN Robotics, 2013.

Paunicka, J. L., Mendel, B. R., & Corman, D. E. (2005). Open control platform: A software platform supporting advances in UAV control technology. Software-Enabled Control: Information Technology for Dynamical Systems, pages 39–62.

Petersen, K., & Gencel, C. (2013). Worldviews, research methods, and their relationship to validity in empirical software engineering research. In 2013 Joint Conference of the 23rd International Workshop on Software Measurement and the 8th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement, pages 81–89. IEEE.

Ramos, B. L., Franca, B., Montechi, L., & Colombini, E. (2018). The ROCS framework to support the development of autonomous robots. Relatório Técnico. Instituto de Computação. Universidade Estadual de Campinas (Unicamp), Tech. Rep.

Ryan, A., Xiao, X., Rathinam, S., Tisdale, J., Zennaro, M., Caveney, D., Sengupta, R., & Hedrick, J. K. (2006). A modular software infrastructure for distributed control of collaborating UAVs. In AIAA Guidance, Navigation, and Control Conference and Exhibit, page 6455.

Sathyaraj, B. M., Jain, L. C., Finn, A., & Drake, S. (2008). Multiple UAVs path planning algorithms: a comparative study. Fuzzy Optimization and Decision Making, 7(3), 257.

Scherer, J., Yahyanejad, S., Hayat, S., Yanmaz, E., Andre, T., Khan, A., Vukadinovic, V., Bettstetter, C., Hellwagner, H., & Rinner, B. (2015). An autonomous multi-UAV system for search and rescue. In Proceedings of the First Workshop on Micro Aerial Vehicle Networks, Systems, and Applications for Civilian Use, pages 33–38.

Sharma, V., Sharma, N., & Rehmani, M. H. (2019). Control over skies: Survivability, coverage, and mobility laws for hierarchical aerial base stations. arXiv preprint arXiv:1903.03725.

Silano, G., & Iannelli, L. (2021). Mat-fly: an educational platform for simulating unmanned aerial vehicles aimed to detect and track moving objects. IEEE Access, 9, 39333–39343.

Sinsley, G., Long, L., Niessner, A., & Horn, J. (2008). Intelligent systems software for unmanned air vehicles. In 46th AIAA Aerospace Sciences Meeting and Exhibit, page 871.

Tachinina, O., Lysenko, O., & Alekseeva, I. (2017). Path constructing method of unmanned aerial vehicle. In 2017 IEEE 4th International Conference Actual Problems of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles Developments (APUAVD), pages 254–258. IEEE.

Tisdale, J., Ryan, A., Zennaro, M., Xiao, X., Caveney, D., Rathinam, S., Hedrick, J. K., & Sengupta, R. (2006). The software architecture of the Berkeley UAV platform. In 2006 IEEE Conference on Computer-Aided Control System Design, 2006 IEEE International Conference on Control Applications, 2006 IEEE International Symposium on Intelligent Control, pages 1420–1425. IEEE.

Tisdale, J. P. (2008). Cooperative sensing and control with unmanned aerial vehicles. University of California, Berkeley.

Vasudevan, A., Kumar, D. A., & Bhuvaneswari, N. (2016). Precision farming using unmanned aerial and ground vehicles. In 2016 IEEE Technological Innovations in ICT for Agriculture and Rural Development (TIAR), pages 146–150. IEEE.

Vincent, P., & Rubin, I. (2004). A framework and analysis for cooperative search using UAV swarms. In Proceedings of the 2004 ACM Symposium on Applied Computing, pages 79–86.

Yanmaz, E., Yahyanejad, S., Rinner, B., Hellwagner, H., & Bettstetter, C. (2018). Drone networks: Communications, coordination, and sensing. Ad Hoc Networks, 68, 1–15.

Yu, Q., Cheng, L., Wang, X., Bao, P., & Zhu, Q. (2018). Research on multiple unmanned aerial vehicles area coverage for gas distribution mapping. In 2018 10th International Conference on Modelling, Identification and Control (ICMIC), pages 1–5. IEEE.




How to Cite

Nascimento Cavalcante, . A. S., & Nicolau de França, B. B. (2023). Simulation-supported development for cooperative Multi-UAV Systems with the Mysterio framework. Journal of Software Engineering Research and Development, 11(1), 11:1 – 11:17.



Research Article