Hidden things and implicit interaction: looking back on how invisibility evolved as a quality-in-use attribute


Invisibility in Ubiquitous Computing (UbiComp) and Internet of Things (IoT) systems refers to the merge of technology in the environment or the interaction workload decrease so that users can focus on their daily activities. It has been a fundamental attribute for these systems since the UbiComp advent and has received different names and definitions over time. However, there is a lack of retrospective studies investigating how these perspectives contributed to the current concept of Invisibility. Therefore, this paper aims to understand how Invisibility evolved as a quality-in-use attribute. We applied the snowballing method to search for literature evidence about the attributes and interaction evaluation approaches related to Invisibility. We identified eight related attributes: Intelligibility, Accuracy, Control, Customization, Non-obtrusiveness, Diffusion, Transparency, and Understandability. Also, we observed that the existing evaluation approaches consider only part of these attributes. Our findings suggest opportunities to improve the approaches and for future research.

Palavras-chave: invisibility, ubiquitous computing, internet of things, snowballing


Bessam Abdulrazak and Yasir Malik. 2012. Review of Challenges, Requirements, and Approaches of Pervasive Computing System Evaluation. IETE Technical Review 29, 6 (Nov.-Dec. 2012), 506--522.

Zainab H. Ali, Hesham A. Ali, and Mahmoud M. Badawy. 2015. Internet of Things (IoT): Definitions, Challenges and Recent Research Directions. International Journal of Computer Applications 128, 1 (Oct. 2015), 37--47.

Alanawd Alshehri and Robert O'Keefe. 2019. Analyzing Social Media to Assess User Satisfaction with Transport for London's Oyster. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction 35, 15 (Sept. 2019), 1378--1387.

Rossana M. C. Andrade, Rainara M. Carvalho, Italo L. de Araújo, Káthia M. Oliveira, and Marcio E. F. Maia. 2017. What Changes from Ubiquitous Computing to Internet of Things in Interaction Evaluation? In Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2017, Norbert Streitz and Panos Markopoulos (Eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 10291. Springer, Cham, 3--21.

Carla Bezerra, Rossana M. C. Andrade, Rainara M. Santos, Mourad Abed, Káthia M. de Oliveira, José M. Monteiro, Ismayle Santos, and Houcine Ezzedine. 2014. Challenges for usability testing in ubiquitous systems. In Proceedings of the 26th Conference on l'Interaction Homme-Machine (IHM '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 183--188.

Vathiswa M. Booi and George E. Ditsa. 2013. Usability and User Acceptance of University Web Portal Interfaces: A Case of South African Universities. In HCI International 2013 - Posters' Extended Abstracts, HCI 2013, Constantine Stephanidis (Ed.). Communications in Computer and Information Science, Vol. 373. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 91--95.

Brasil. 2016. Resolução n° 510, de 07 de abril de 2016. Diário Oficial da República Federativa do Brasil (2016). Retrieved June 3, 2022 from [link] Dispõe sobre as normas aplicáveis a pesquisas em Ciências Humanas e Sociais cujos procedimentos metodológicos envolvam a utilização de dados diretamente obtidos com os participantes ou de informações identificáveis ou que possam acarretar riscos maiores do que os existentes na vida cotidiana. (In Portuguese).

Rainara M. Carvalho. 2017. Dealing with Conflicts Between Non-functional Requirements of UbiComp and IoT Applications. In 2017 IEEE 25th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE). IEEE, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 544--549.

Rainara M. Carvalho, Rossana M.C. Andrade, and Káthia M. de Oliveira. 2018. Towards a catalog of conflicts for HCI quality characteristics in UbiComp and IoT applications: Process and first results. In 2018 12th International Conference on Research Challenges in Information Science (RCIS). IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 1--6.

Rainara M. Carvalho, Rossana M. C. Andrade, Jefferson Barbosa, Adyson M. Maia, Belmondo A. Junior, Paulo A. Aguilar, Carla I. M. Bezerra, and Káthia M. Oliveira. 2017. Evaluating an IoT Application Using Software Measures. In Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2017, Norbert Streitz and Panos Markopoulos (Eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 10291. Springer, Cham, 22--33.

Rainara M. Carvalho, Rossana M. C. Andrade, and Káthia M. de Oliveira. 2018. AQUArIUM - A suite of software measures for HCI quality evaluation of ubiquitous mobile applications. Journal of Systems and Software 136 (Feb. 2018), 101--136.

Rainara M. Carvalho, Rossana M. C. Andrade, Káthia M. de Oliveira, Ismayle S. Santos, and Carla I. M. Bezerra. 2017. Quality characteristics and measures for human-computer interaction evaluation in ubiquitous systems. Software Quality Journal 25, 3 (Sept. 2017), 743--795.

Rainara M. Carvalho, Rossana M. C. Andrade, and Káthia M. Oliveira. 2020. How developers believe Invisibility impacts NFRs related to User Interaction. In 2020 IEEE 28th international requirements engineering conference (RE). IEEE, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 102--112.

Rainara M. Carvalho, Rossana M. C. Andrade, Káthia M. Oliveira, and Christophe Kolski. 2018. Catalog of Invisibility Requirements for UbiComp and IoT Applications. In 2018 IEEE 26th International Requirements Engineering Conference (RE). IEEE, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 88--99.

Kay Connelly. 2007. On Developing a Technology Acceptance Model for Pervasive Computing. In Proceedings of Ubiquitous System Evaluation (USE) - a workshop at the Ninth International Conference on Ubiquitous Computing (UBICOMP). Innsbruck, Austria.

Cristiano A. da Costa, Adenauer C. Yamin, and Claudio F. R. Geyer. 2008. Toward a General Software Infrastructure for Ubiquitous Computing. IEEE Pervasive Computing 7, 1 (Jan.-March 2008), 64--73.

Deógenes P. da Silva Junior, Patricia C. de Souza, and Cristiano Maciel. 2016. Establishing Guidelines for User Quality of Experience in Ubiquitous Systems. In Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2016, Norbert Streitz and Panos Markopoulos (Eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 9749. Springer, Cham, 46--57.

José Cezar de Souza Filho, Marcos Randel Freitas Brito, and Andréia Libório Sampaio. 2020. Comparing Heuristic Evaluation and MALTU Model in Interaction Evaluation of Ubiquitous Systems. In Proceedings of the 19th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems (IHC '20). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 10.

Stephan Haller, Stamatis Karnouskos, and Christoph Schroth. 2009. The Internet of Things in an Enterprise Context. In Future Internet - FIS 2008, John Domingue, Dieter Fensel, and Paolo Traverso (Eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 5468. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 14--28.

Norhidayah Hamzah, Suriayati Chuprat, Dini O. D. Handayani, Kang Xiaoxi, and Sarojini D. Nagappan. 2021. Evaluating Quality Characteristics of Ubiquitous Application Through Means of Quality Models using Meta-metrics Approach. Journal of Physics: Conference Series 2120, 1, Article 012033 (Dec. 2021).

Norhidayah Hamzah, Gayathri Mageswaran, Sarojini D. Nagappan, and Suriayati Chuprat. 2018. Assessing Usability of Ubiquitous Systems Using Quality Model. In 2018 Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication & Automation (ICACCA). IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 1--4.

Mahdi Hashemi and Abolghasem Sadeghi-Niaraki. 2016. A Theoretical Framework for Ubiquitous Computing. International Journal of Advanced Pervasive and Ubiquitous Computing (IJAPUC) 8, 2 (2016), 1--15.

Shaghayegh Izadpanah, Hamed Vahdat-Nejad, and Hamid Saadatfar. 2018. A Framework for ranking ubiquitous computing services by AHP analysis. International Journal of Modeling, Simulation, and Scientific Computing 9, 4, Article 1850023 (Aug. 2018).

Russell Johnson and Elizabeth Kemp. 2011. Matching form with content. eleed 8, 1 (2011). http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0009-5-31462

Dimitrios C. Karaiskos, Panos Kourouthanassis, and George M. Giaglis. 2009. Towards a Validated Construct for Information Systems Pervasiveness: An Exploratory Assessment. In BLED 2009 Proceedings. AIS, Illinois, USA, Article 12. https://aisel.aisnet.org/bled2009/12

Hannu Karvonen and Tuomo Kujala. 2014. Designing and Evaluating Ubicomp Characteristics of Intelligent In-Car Systems. In Advances in Ergonomics In Design, Usability & Special Populations: Part I: The 5th International Conference on Applied Human Factors and Ergonomics, AHFE 2014, Francisco Rebelo and Marcelo Soares (Eds.). Advances in Human Factors and Ergonomics, Vol. 16. AHFE International, USA, 27--38.

Hannu Karvonen, Tuomo Kujala, and Pertti Saariluoma. 2006. In-Car Ubiquitous Computing: Driver Tutoring Messages Presented on a Head-Up Display. In 2006 IEEE Intelligent Transportation Systems Conference. IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 560--565.

Hannu Karvonen, Tuomo Kujala, and Pertti Saariluoma. 2008. Ubiquitous co-driver system and its effects on the situation awareness of the driver. In 2008 IEEE Intelligent Vehicles Symposium. IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 337--342.

Elizabeth A. Kemp, Ashleigh-Jane Thompson, and Russell S. Johnson. 2008. Interface Evaluation for Invisibility and Ubiquity: An Example from e-Learning. In Proceedings of the 9th ACM SIGCHI New Zealand Chapter's International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction: Design Centered HCI (CHINZ '08). ACM, New York, NY, USA, 31--38.

Han J. Kim, Jong K. Choi, and YongGu Ji. 2008. Usability Evaluation Framework for Ubiquitous Computing Device. In 2008 Third International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology. IEEE, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 164--170.

In-Young Ko, Hyung-Min Koo, and Angel Jimenez-Molina. 2010. User-Centric Web Services for Ubiquitous Computing. In Advanced Techniques in Web Intelligence - I, Juan D. Velásquez and Lakhmi C. Jain (Eds.). Studies in Computational Intelligence, Vol. 311. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 167--189.

Panos E. Kourouthanassis, George M. Giaglis, and Dimitrios C. Karaiskos. 2008. Delineating the Degree of 'Pervasiveness' in Pervasive Information Systems: An Assessment Framework and Design Implications. In 2008 Pan-Hellenic Conference on Informatics. IEEE, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 251--255.

Alberto Martín-Martín, Enrique Orduna-Malea, Mike Thelwall, and Emilio D. López-Cózar. 2018. Google Scholar, Web of Science, and Scopus: A systematic comparison of citations in 252 subject categories. Journal of Informetrics 12, 4 (Nov. 2018), 1160--1177.

Vangelis Metsis, Zhengyi Le, Yu Lei, and Fillia Makedon. 2008. Towards an Evaluation Framework for Assistive Environments. In Proceedings of the 1st International Conference on PErvasive Technologies Related to Assistive Environments (PETRA '08). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 12.

Ali Ndiwalana and D. Scott McCrickard. 2008. From Everyday Objects to Computational Devices: Understanding the Science behind Ubiquitous Computing Interface Design. International Journal of Computing and ICT Research 2, 2 (Dec. 2008), 49--61.

Steve Neely, Graeme Stevenson, Christian Kray, Ingrid Mulder, Kay Connelly, and Katie A. Siek. 2008. Evaluating Pervasive and Ubiquitous Systems. IEEE Pervasive Computing 7, 3 (July-Sept. 2008), 85--88.

Jakob Nielsen. 1994. 10 Usability Heuristics for User Interface Design. Retrieved March 9, 2022 from https://www.nngroup.com/articles/ten-usability-heuristics/

Stavroula Ntoa, George Margetis, Margherita Antona, and Constantine Stephanidis. 2021. User Experience Evaluation in Intelligent Environments: A Comprehensive Framework. Technologies 9, 2, Article 41 (June 2021).

Nasrine Olson, Jan M. Nolin, and Gustaf Nelhans. 2015. Semantic web, ubiquitous computing, or internet of things? A macro-analysis of scholarly publications. Journal of Documentation 71, 5 (Sept. 2015), 884--916.

Carsten Orwat, Andreas Graefe, and Timm Faulwasser. 2008. Towards pervasive computing in health care - A literature review. BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making 8, 1, Article 26 (June 2008).

Kai Petersen and Cigdem Gencel. 2013. Worldviews, Research Methods, and their Relationship to Validity in Empirical Software Engineering Research. In 2013 Joint Conference of the 23rd International Workshop on Software Measurement and the 8th International Conference on Software Process and Product Measurement. IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 81--89.

Kai Petersen, Sairam Vakkalanka, and Ludwik Kuzniarz. 2015. Guidelines for conducting systematic mapping studies in software engineering: An update. Information and Software Technology 64 (Aug. 2015), 1--18.

Helder Pinto, Rui José, and José C. Campos. 2007. An Interaction Model and Infrastructure for Localized Activities in Pervasive Computing Environments. In IEEE International Conference on Pervasive Services. IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, USA, 232--241.

Ronald Poppe, Rutger Rienks, and Betsy van Dijk. 2007. Evaluating the Future of HCI: Challenges for the Evaluation of Emerging Applications. In Artifical Intelligence for Human Computing, Thomas S. Huang, Anton Nijholt, Maja Pantic, and Alex Pentland (Eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4451. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 234--250.

Souad Rabah, Mourad Abed, and Nesrine Zoghlami. 2014. AmIs sustainability: evaluation framework based on fuzzy logic. International Journal of Services and Operations Management 19, 2 (Oct. 2014), 265--286.

Sirpa Riihiaho. 2009. User Testing When Test Tasks Are Not Appropriate. In European Conference on Cognitive Ergonomics: Designing beyond the Product --- Understanding Activity and User Experience in Ubiquitous Environments (ECCE '09). VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland, FI-02044 VTT, Finland, 228--235.

Larissa C. Rocha, Rossana M. C. Andrade, Andreia L. Sampaio, and Valéria Lelli. 2017. Heuristics to Evaluate the Usability of Ubiquitous Systems. In Distributed, Ambient and Pervasive Interactions, DAPI 2017, Norbert Streitz and Panos Markopoulos (Eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 10291. Springer, Cham, 120--141.

Yvonne Rogers, Kay Connelly, Lenore Tedesco, William Hazlewood, Andrew Kurtz, Robert E. Hall, Josh Hursey, and Tammy Toscos. 2007. Why It's Worth the Hassle: The Value of In-Situ Studies When Designing Ubicomp. In UbiComp 2007: Ubiquitous Computing, John Krumm, Gregory D. Abowd, Aruna Seneviratne, and Thomas Strang (Eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 4717. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, 336--353.

Cristian Rusu, Silvana Roncagliolo, Virginica Rusu, and Cesar Collazos. 2011. A Methodology to Establish Usability Heuristics. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computer-Human Interactions (ACHI 2011). IARIA, Wilmington, DE, USA, 59--62.

Hokyoung Ryu, Guan Y. Hong, and H. James. 2006. Quality assessment technique for ubiquitous software and middleware. Research Letters in the Information and Mathematical Sciences 9 (2006), 13--87. http://hdl.handle.net/10179/4480

Rainara M. Santos, Káthia M. de Oliveira, Rossana M. C. Andrade, Ismayle S. Santos, and Edmilson R. Lima. 2013. A Quality Model for Human-Computer Interaction Evaluation in Ubiquitous Systems. In Human Computer Interaction, CLIHC 2013, César Collazos, Andréia Liborio, and Cristian Rusu (Eds.). Lecture Notes in Computer Science, Vol. 8278. Springer, Cham, 63--70.

Jean Scholtz and Sunny Consolvo. 2004. Toward a framework for evaluating ubiquitous computing applications. IEEE Pervasive Computing 3, 2 (April-June 2004), 82--88.

Jacques Terken and Janienke Sturm. 2005. Recommendations and Best Practice for Evaluation of Ubiquitous Groupware Services. In ICMI 2005 - Workshop on User-Centred Design and Evaluation of Service for Human-Human Communication and Collaboration. Trento, Italy, 43--52.

Mary Theofanos and Jean Scholtz. 2005. A Diner's Guide to Evaluating a Framework for Ubiquitous Computing Applications. In Proceedings of the 11th International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, Vol. 7. Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, NJ, USA.

Mary Theofanos and Jean Scholtz. 2005. A Framework for Evaluation of Ubicomp Applications. In First International Workshop on Social Implications of Ubiquitous Computing (UbiSoc 2005). ETH Zurich, Zurich, Switzerland, 1--5.

Simon G. Thompson and Behnam Azvine. 2004. No Pervasive Computing without Intelligent Systems. BT Technology Journal 22, 3 (July 2004), 39--49.

Jean-Philippe Vasseur and Adam Dunkels. 2010. Interconnecting Smart Objects with IP: The Next Internet. Morgan Kaufmann, San Francisco, CA, USA.

Mark Weiser. 1991. The Computer for the 21st Century. Scientific American 265, 3 (Sept. 1991), 94--105. https://www.jstor.org/stable/24938718

Mark Weiser. 1993. Some Computer Science Issues in Ubiquitous Computing. Commun. ACM 36, 7 (July 1993), 75--84.

Mark Weiser. 1993. Ubiquitous Computing. Computer 26, 10 (Oct. 1993), 71--72.

Andrew Whitmore, Anurag Agarwal, and Li Da Xu. 2015. The Internet of Things---A survey of topics and trends. Information Systems Frontiers 17, 2 (April 2015), 261--274.

Claes Wohlin. 2014. Guidelines for snowballing in systematic literature studies and a replication in software engineering. In Proceedings of the 18th International Conference on Evaluation and Assessment in Software Engineering (EASE '14). ACM, New York, NY, USA, Article 38.

Efpraxia D. Zamani, Panos E. Kourouthanassis, Dimitrios C. Karaiskos, and George M. Giaglis. 2011. Exploring the Adoption of Ubiquitous Information Systems within the Museum Context. In MCIS 2011 Proceedings. AIS, Illinois, USA, Article 56. https://aisel.aisnet.org/mcis2011/56
Como Citar

Selecione um Formato
DE SOUZA FILHO, José Cezar; SAMPAIO, Andréia Libório; FEITOSA, Eduardo Luzeiro. Hidden things and implicit interaction: looking back on how invisibility evolved as a quality-in-use attribute. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO SOBRE FATORES HUMANOS EM SISTEMAS COMPUTACIONAIS (IHC), 21. , 2022, Diamantina. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2022 .