CV-QKD Security Limits Using Higher-Order Probabilistic Shaped Regular M-APSK Constellations
In this work we study the performance of M-symbol (M-)Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (APSK) constellations for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution systems. Despite the gap still observed between the performance of higher order regular M-APSK constellations with binomial distribution for probabilistic shaping and the optimal performance of Gaussian Modulation, regular 128-APSK’s performance is better than irregular 256-APSK’s and almost the same as for regular 256-APSK. Moreover, higher-order regular M-APSK is secure for longer distances and higher values of mean number of photons per symbol, and is more resistant to excess noise.
Bennett, C. H. and Brassard, G. (2014). Quantum cryptography: Public key distribution and coin tossing. Theoretical Computer Science, 560:7-11.
Denys, A., Brown, P., and Leverrier, A. (2021). Explicit asymptotic secret key rate of continuous-variable quantum key distribution with an arbitrary modulation. Quantum, 5:540. arXiv: 2103.13945.
Essiambre, R.-J., Kramer, G., Winzer, P. J., Foschini, G. J., and Goebel, B. (2010). Capacity Limits of Optical Fiber Networks. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 28(4):662-701.
Ghorai, S., Grangier, P., Diamanti, E., and Leverrier, A. (2019). Asymptotic Security of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution with a Discrete Modulation. Physical Review X, 9(2):021059.
Grosshans, F. and Grangier, P. (2002). Continuous variable quantum cryptography using coherent states. Physical Review Letters, 88(5):057902. arXiv: quant-ph/0109084.
Huang, P., Fang, J., and Zeng, G. (2014). State-discrimination attack on discretely modulated continuous-variable quantum key distribution. Physical Review A, 89(4):042330.
Leverrier, A. and Grangier, P. (2011). Continuous-variable quantum key distribution protocols with a non-Gaussian modulation. Physical Review A, 83(4):042312. arXiv: 1101.3008.
Leverrier, A., Grosshans, F., and Grangier, P. (2010). Finite-size analysis of a continuous-variable quantum key distribution. Physical Review A, 81(6):062343.
Li, Z., Zhang, Y.-C., Xu, F., Peng, X., and Guo, H. (2014). Continuous-Variable Measurement-Device-Independent Quantum Key Distribution. Physical Review A, 89(5):052301. arXiv: 1312.4655.
Lin, J. and Lütkenhaus, N. (2020). Trusted Detector Noise Analysis for Discrete Modulation Schemes of Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution. Physical Review Applied, 14(6):064030.