CV-QKD Security Limits Using Higher-Order Probabilistic Shaped Regular M-APSK Constellations

  • Margarida Almeida University of Aveiro
  • Daniel Pereira University of Aveiro
  • Nelson J. Muga University of Aveiro
  • Margarida Facão University of Aveiro
  • Armando N. Pinto University of Aveiro
  • Nuno A. Silva University of Aveiro


In this work we study the performance of M-symbol (M-)Amplitude and Phase Shift Keying (APSK) constellations for Continuous-Variable Quantum Key Distribution systems. Despite the gap still observed between the performance of higher order regular M-APSK constellations with binomial distribution for probabilistic shaping and the optimal performance of Gaussian Modulation, regular 128-APSK’s performance is better than irregular 256-APSK’s and almost the same as for regular 256-APSK. Moreover, higher-order regular M-APSK is secure for longer distances and higher values of mean number of photons per symbol, and is more resistant to excess noise.


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ALMEIDA, Margarida; PEREIRA, Daniel; MUGA, Nelson J.; FACÃO, Margarida; PINTO, Armando N.; SILVA, Nuno A.. CV-QKD Security Limits Using Higher-Order Probabilistic Shaped Regular M-APSK Constellations. In: WORKSHOP DE COMUNICAÇÃO E COMPUTAÇÃO QUÂNTICA (WQUANTUM), 2. , 2022, Fortaleza. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2022 . p. 7-12. DOI: