Integrando injeção de falhas e testes formais na validação da tolerância a falhas

  • Eliane Martins UNICAMP


This paper presents a test approach which integrates fault injection and formal testing. Fault injection is an experimental technique in which a system is validated in presence of special inputs: the faults. The term formal testing is used here to designate a functional test based on a formal specification of the system. This allow the selection of test inputs, i.e., faults and activations (inputs that activate system funcionalitics), to be based on this formal specification. The approach is centered on the realization of statistical testing. One important aspect of this type of test concems test size assessment: how many inputs are necessary to achieve validation objectives ? This is the main focus of the study presented here.


J. Arlat, M Aguera, L. Amat, Y. Crouzet, J.-C Fabre, J.-C Lapric, F. Martins, D.Powell, Fault injection for dependability validation - a methodology and some applications, IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 16, fev. 1990.

J. Arlat. Fault injection for the experimental validation of fault tolerant computer systems. Relatório interna do LAAS, nº 92489, Outubro de 1992.

Thomas F.Arnold. The concept of coverage and its effect on the reliability model of a repairable system. IEEE Transactions on Computers, C-22(3), 1973, pp. 251-254.

D.R. Avresky, J. Arlat, J.-C Lapric, Y. Crouzet. Guiding the process of fault injection for testing fault tolerance. Relatório interno LAAS nº 91-351. Dezembro 1991.

W.G.Bouricius, W.C.Carter, P. R. Schneider. Reliability modeling techniques for self-repairing computer systems, Proc. 24th. National Conference of ACM, 1969.

R. Chillarege. The art of failure acceleration to design fault-injection experiments. IEEE Intl Warkshop on Fault and Error Injection for Dependability Validation of Computer Systems, Gotemburgo, Suécia, 1993.

Y. Crouzet, B.Decouty. Measurements of fault detection mechanisms efficiency: results, Proc. FTCS-12, Santa Monica, CA, USA, jun 1982.

E.W. Czeck, D. P.Siewiorek. Effects of transient gate-level faults on program behavior. Proc. FTCS-20, Newcastle upon Tyne, Inglaterra, jun 1990.

A. Damm. Experimental evaluation of error-detection and self-checking coverage of components of a distributed real-time system. Tese de doutorado, Tech. Univ. Viena, 1988.

T.R Dilenno, D.A Yaskin, J.H Barton. Fault tolerance testing in the Advanced Automation System. Proc. FTCS-21, Montreal, Canadá, jun 1991.

K.Echlle, M.Leu The EFA fault injector for fault-tolerant distributed system testing. Anais do IEEE Workshop on Fault Tolerant Parallel and Distributed Systems, Amherst, MA, EUA, 1992.

K.K. Goswami, R.K. Iyer, "DEPEND. a simulation based environment for system level dependability analysis". Relatório da Univ. of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign nº CRHC-UIUC, 1991.

B. Grais Techniques Statistiques-2. Méthodes Statistiques. Dunod, 1990, cap. 6.

U. Gunneflo, J. Karlsson, J. Torin. Evaluation of error detection schemes using fault injection by heavy-ion radiation. Proc' FTCS-19, Chicago, IL, USA, 1989.

E. Jenn, J. Arlat, "Implementation of fault injection in VHDL". Relatório Interno nº LAAS92266, julho de 1992 (em francês)

G.A Kanawati, N.A. Kanawati, J.A.Abraham. FERRARI: A Tool for the Validation of System Dependability Properties. Proc. FTCS-22, Boston, MA, USA, 1992.

W. Kao, R.K. Iyer, D. Tang. FINE: A fault injection and monitoring environment for tracing the Unix system behavior under faults. IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, 19(11), 1993.

B. Kopka. Etude et validation d'une redondance homogéne ordre deux à décalage tempore pour des applications à haut niveau de sécurité. Tese de doutorado, Nancy, França, 1988.

J.-C. Laprie. Süreté de fonctionnement: concepts de base et terminologic. Dependable Computing and Fault Tolerance. Springer Verlag, 1992.

Julius C.B. Leite, Orlando G.Loques Fº. Software. II SCTF, cap. 4 do mini-curso intitulado: Introdução 4 Tolerância a Falhas, Campinas, SP, 1987.

T.Lovric, K.Echtle. ProFl: Processor Faull Injection for dependability validation. IEEE Intl. Workshop en Fault and Error Injection for Dependability Validation of Computer Systems, Gotemburgo, Suécia, 1993.

H. Madeira, F. Moreira, M. Rela, P. Furtado, J.G. Silva. Pin-level fault injection for dependability validation; some research results at the University of Coimbra. IEEE Intnl Workshop on Fault and Error Injection for Dependability Validation of Computer Systems, Gotemburgo, Suécia, 1993.

E.Martins. Validation de systémes répartis par injection de fautes Tese de doutorado, ENSAE, 1992.

E.Martins. Teste de protocolos tolerantes a falhas por injeção de falhas. 11º SBRC. Campinas, Maio de 1993.

E. Martins. Injeção de falhas na validação experimental da tolerância a falhas. V SCTF, mini-curso, S. José dos Campos, Outubro de 1993.

H.A. Rosenberg, K.G.Shin. Software Fault Injection and its Application in Distributed Systems. Proc. FTCS-23, Toulouse, França, 1993.

Z. Segall, D. Vrsalovic, D.P.Siewiorek, D.Yaskin, J. Kownacki, J. Barton, R. Dancey, A. Robinson, T. Lin. FIAT-Fault Injection based Automated Testing environment. Proc. FTCS-18, Tokyo, Japão, jun 1988.

Z. Segall, J. Barton, D.Vrsalovic, D.P. Siewiorek, R.Dancey, A Robinson. Fault injection based automated Testing: practice and examples. Proc.8° Digital Avionics System Conference, San Jose, EUA, 1988.

D.PSidhu, C.S. Chang. Probabilistic testing of protocols. ACM SIGCOMM'S9, Austin, Texas, USA, set. 1989.

P. Thévenod-Fosse. From random testing of hardware to statistical testing of software. IEEE Comp'Euro91, Bolonha, Itália, 1991.

P.Thévenod-Fosse, H. Waeselynck. An investigation of software statistical testing. Relatório LAAS nº 91.003, 1991.

P.Thévenod-Fosse, H.Waeselynck. On functional statistical testing designed from software behavior models. 3º IFIP Intl Working Conference on Dependable Computing for Critical Applications (DCCA-3), Palermo, Itália, 1992.

P. Thévenod-Fosse, H.Waeselynck. STATEMATE applicd to statistical software testing., Relatório LAAS nº 92.483, dezembro de 1992.

T.I. Winfrey, G.E.Kaiser. Testing reliable distributed applications through simulated events. Proc. FTCS-19,1989.
MARTINS, Eliane. Integrando injeção de falhas e testes formais na validação da tolerância a falhas. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE ENGENHARIA DE SOFTWARE (SBES), 9. , 1995, Recife/PE. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 1995 . p. 223-239. DOI: