A Model-based Framework for the Analysis of Software Energy Consumption
Software is present in all types of devices, some of them with restrictions as to the amount of energy they can spend to execute software applications. For this reason, energy costs are becoming an important factor during software development and evolution. However, there is still little support for creating energy-efficient software. In this work, we introduce a possible framework for software energy costs evaluation based on model analysis. We model software as Labelled Transitions Systems (LTS) and annotate these models with energy costs, which can be obtained using existing tools. We can then apply graph-based algorithms to traverse the models to obtain information about energy consumption related to software behaviour, such as its most/least costly execution, the cost of a specific execution, and the average cost of executing the software. No existing tool currently provides all the necessary analyses, even though they are essential for energy-consumption evaluation. We have conducted a small experiment with our framework where we employed jRAPL to measure energy costs. We annotated the models with the collected energy costs using an extended version of the LoTuS tool, where we have also implemented some of the desired analyses. Based on this support and on our initial results, we believe developers could create software more energy-efficient and consider possible trade-offs related to time, space, and energy costs when producing new versions of their systems.
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