Industry 4.0: Smart Contract-based Industrial Internet of Things Process Management

  • Charles Tim Batista Garrocho IFMG / UFOP
  • Célio Marcio Soares Ferreira UFOP
  • Ailton Sávio Sacramento Júnior UFOP
  • Carlos Frederico Marcelo da Cunha Cavalcanti UFOP
  • Ricardo Augusto Rabelo Oliveira UFOP


Through the Internet of Industrial Things, significant investments in the industry are expected. In this new environment, machine-to-machine communication showed immediate potential. However, most communication implementations require a trusted intermediary. The introduction of smart contracts can enable communication without the need for a trusted intermediary. To provide security and decentralization in industrial communication processes, smart contract-based middleware is proposed. This proposal is evaluated for impacts against the stringent communication requirements required by industrial applications. Experimental results show that while this approach offers greater security and decentralization than traditional proposals, blockchain-based smart contracts cannot yet be applied to industrial systems due to blocking time.

Palavras-chave: IIoT, M2M, Blockchain, Smart Contracts


D. Serpanos and M. Wolf, “Industrial internet of things,” in Internet-of- Things (IoT) Systems, pp. 37–54, Springer, 2018.

Accenture, “Winning with the industrial internet of things.” Available online at: Accessed on 04/07/2019, 2015.

E. Sisinni, A. Saifullah, S. Han, U. Jennehag, and M. Gidlund, “Industrial internet of things: Challenges, opportunities, and directions,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, vol. 14, no. 11, pp. 4724–4734, 2018.

N. Kshetri, “Can blockchain strengthen the internet of things?,” IT professional, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 68–72, 2017.

C. J. Bartodziej, “The concept industry 4.0,” in The Concept Industry 4.0, pp. 27–50, Springer, 2017.

T. Borangiu, D. Trentesaux, A. Thomas, P. Leitão, and J. Barata, “Digital transformation of manufacturing through cloud services and resource virtualization,” Computers in Industry, vol. 108, pp. 150–162, 2019.

S. Zhong, H. Zhong, X. Huang, P. Yang, J. Shi, L. Xie, and K. Wang, Security and Privacy for Next-Generation Wireless Networks. Springer, 2019.

R. Candell, M. Kashef, Y. Liu, K. B. Lee, and S. Foufou, “Industrial wireless systems guidelines: Practical considerations and deployment life cycle,” IEEE Industrial Electronics Magazine, vol. 12, no. 4, pp. 6–17, 2018.

M. Wollschlaeger, T. Sauter, and J. Jasperneite, “The future of industrial communication: Automation networks in the era of the internet of things and industry 4.0,” IEEE industrial electronics magazine, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 17–27, 2017.

M. Felser, “Real-time ethernet–industry prospective,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 93, no. 6, pp. 1118–1129, 2005.

S. Vitturi, C. Zunino, and T. Sauter, “Industrial communication systems and their future challenges: Next-generation ethernet, iiot, and 5g,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 944–961, 2019.

K. Sharma, Overview of industrial process automation. Elsevier, 2016.

M. Banerjee, J. Lee, and K.-K. R. Choo, “A blockchain future for internet of things security: A position paper,” Digital Communications and Networks, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 149–160, 2018.

Z. Zheng, S. Xie, H.-N. Dai, X. Chen, and H. Wang, “Blockchain challenges and opportunities: A survey,” International Journal of Web and Grid Services, vol. 14, no. 4, pp. 352–375, 2018.

A. Miller, Z. Cai, and S. Jha, “Smart contracts and opportunities for formal methods,” in International Symposium on Leveraging Applications of Formal Methods, pp. 280–299, Springer, 2018.

B. Kitchenham, “Procedures for performing systematic reviews,” Keele, UK, Keele University, vol. 33, no. 2004, pp. 1–26, 2004.

J. Backman, S. Yrjölä, K. Valtanen, and O. Mämmelä, “Blockchain network slice broker in 5g: Slice leasing in factory of the future use case,” in 2018 Internet of Things Business Models, Users, and Networks, pp. 1–8, IEEE, 2018.

C. H. Liu, Q. Lin, and S. Wen, “Blockchain-enabled data collection and sharing for industrial iot with deep reinforcement learning,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 2018.

Z. Li, J. Kang, R. Yu, D. Ye, Q. Deng, and Y. Zhang, “Consortium blockchain for secure energy trading in industrial internet of things,” IEEE transactions on industrial informatics, vol. 14, no. 8, pp. 3690– 3700, 2018.

Y. Liu, K. Wang, Y. Lin, and W. Xu, “Lightchain: A lightweight blockchain system for industrial internet of things,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Informatics, 2019.

M. Y. Afanasev, Y. V. Fedosov, A. A. Krylova, and S. A. Shorokhov, “An application of blockchain and smart contracts for machine-to-machine communications in cyber-physical production systems,” in 2018 IEEE Industrial Cyber-Physical Systems (ICPS), pp. 13–19, IEEE, 2018.

M. Lucas-Estañ, M. Sepulcre, T. Raptis, A. Passarella, and M. Conti, “Emerging trends in hybrid wireless communication and data management for the industry 4.0,” Electronics, vol. 7, no. 12, p. 400, 2018.

F. Tramarin, A. K. Mok, and S. Han, “Real-time and reliable industrial control over wireless lans: Algorithms, protocols, and future directions,” Proceedings of the IEEE, vol. 107, no. 6, pp. 1027–1052, 2019.

M. Weiser, “The computer for the 21 st century,” Scientific american, vol. 265, no. 3, pp. 94–105, 1991.
GARROCHO, Charles Tim Batista; FERREIRA, Célio Marcio Soares; SACRAMENTO JÚNIOR, Ailton Sávio; CAVALCANTI, Carlos Frederico Marcelo da Cunha; OLIVEIRA, Ricardo Augusto Rabelo. Industry 4.0: Smart Contract-based Industrial Internet of Things Process Management. In: TRABALHOS EM ANDAMENTO - SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE ENGENHARIA DE SISTEMAS COMPUTACIONAIS (SBESC), 9. , 2019, Natal. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2019 . p. 137-142. ISSN 2763-9002. DOI: