A Conceptual Model for the Analysis of Investigation Elements in Games

  • Pedro Marques UFRJ
  • Marcus Parreiras UFRJ
  • Joshua Kritz UFRJ
  • Geraldo Xexéo UFRJ


This paper presents the 4E conceptual model, developed to formally analyze investigation games from a game design perspective. The model encompasses four components: Exploration, Elicitation, Experimentation, and Evaluation. Grounded Theory was employed as the methodology for constructing the model, allowing for an in-depth understanding of the underlying concepts. The resulting model was then compared to existing literature, and its contributions were thoroughly discussed. Overall, the 4E model presents a comprehensive framework for understanding investigation games elements. It’s application in two real-world scenarios demonstrates its practical relevance.


Beachum, A. (2013). Outer Wilds A Game of Curiosity-Driven Space Exploration. PhD thesis, University of Southern California.

Bjork, S. and Holopainen, J. (2004). Patterns in Game Design (Game Development Series) (Game Development Series). Charles River Media.

Blye, E. (2023). What are the best detective video games? (Accessed on 06/16/2023).

Bogost, I. (2010). Persuasive games: The expressive power of videogames. mit Press.

Cawelti, J. G. (1976). Adventure, Mystery and Romance: Formula Stories as Art and Popular Culture. The University of Chicago Press, Chicago.

Costa, V. G. (2019). anotações sobre magia e exploração.

Fernandez-Vara, C.(2018). Game narrative through the detective lens. [link]. (Accessed on 06/16/2023).

Frasca, G. (1999). Ludology meets narratology. similitude and differences between (video)games and narrative. Parnasso, 1999(3):365–371.

Guardiola, E. (2016). The gameplay loop: a player activity model for game design and analysis. In Proceedings of the 13th International Conference on Advances in Computer Entertainment Technology, Osaka, Japan. ACM.

Hasbro (2023). Clue game manual. Hasbro, (Acessed in 29-06-2023).

Hook, N. (2015). Grounded theory. In Lankoski, P. and Björk, S., editors, Game Research Methods: An Overview, chapter 18, pages 309–323. ETC Press.

Meslow, S. (2017). Revisiting ’l.a. noire’, the game that nearly revolutionized the video game industry — gq. Accessed on 06/16/2023.

Ramos, E. S. (2021). The classical detective story formula from literature to videogames. In Proceedings of SBGames 2021. SBC. Art & Design Track.

Schell, J. (2008). The Art of Game Design: A book of lenses. CRC press.

Stol, K.-J., Ralph, P., and Fitzgerald, B. (2016). Grounded theory in software engineering research: A critical review and guidelines. In Proceedings of the 38th International Conference on Software Engineering, ICSE ’16, page 120–131, New York, NY, USA. Association for Computing Machinery.

Todorov, T. (1977). The Typology of Detective Fiction, pages 42–52. Cornell University Press.

USA (2023). Elicitation. U.S. Department of Justice, Federal Bureau of Investigation brochure, (Acessed in 23-06-2023).
Como Citar
MARQUES, Pedro et al. A Conceptual Model for the Analysis of Investigation Elements in Games. Anais Estendidos do Simpósio Brasileiro de Jogos e Entretenimento Digital (SBGames), [S.l.], p. 224-234, nov. 2023. ISSN 0000-0000. Disponível em: <https://sol.sbc.org.br/index.php/sbgames_estendido/article/view/27813>. Acesso em: 18 maio 2024. doi: https://doi.org/10.5753/sbgames_estendido.2023.233885.
Trilha de Artes & Design – Artigos Completos