Towards to fair trade with item validation using Bloom Filters and Smart Contracts

  • Matheus Cunha Reis UFU
  • Ivan da Silva Sendin UFU


Smart Contracts bring a new set of possibilities in the secure protocol development: participants gain guarantees of the correct execution of the protocol steps. In contrast, current Smart Contract solutions do not provide data privacy, this scenario is particularly bad in the commerce of e-goods. In this work, we present a fair trade protocol based Smart Contract and Bloom Filter for the problem of e-goods trading where the involved parts do not trust each other.


Mocha project., 2020. Accessed: 2020-05-22.

Web3 project., 2020. Accessed: 2020-05-22.

Abdullah Alotaibi and Hamza Aldabbas. A review of fair exchange protocols. International Journal of Computer Networks & Communications (IJCNC), 4(4):307– 319, July 2012.

N. Asokan, Matthias Schunter, and Michael Waidner. Optimistic protocols for fair exchange. Proceedings of the ACM Conference on Computer and Communications Security, pages 6–17, 1997.

Adam Back and Iddo Bentov. Note on fair coin toss via bitcoin. CoRR, abs/1402.3698, 2014.

Steven Michael Bellovin and William R. Cheswick. Privacy-Enhanced Searches Using Encrypted Bloom Filters. Columbia University Academic Commons, pages CUCS–034–07, 2007.

Iddo Bentov and Ranjit Kumaresan. How to use Bitcoin to design fair protocols. Lecture Notes in Computer Science (LNCS), 8617(PART 2):421–439, 2014.

Burton H. Bloom. Space/time trade-offs in hash coding with allowable errors. Communications of the ACM, 13(7):422–426, 1970.

Josep Lluis Ferrer-Gomila, M. Francisca Hinarejos, and Andreu Pere Isern-Deyà. A fair contract signing protocol with blockchain support. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications, 36(June):100869, 2019.

Arthur Gervais, Srdjan Capkun, Ghassan O. Karame, and Damian Gruber. On the privacy provisions of bloom filters in lightweight bitcoin clients. In Proceedings of the 30th Annual Computer Security Applications Conference, ACSAC ’14, page 326–335, New York, NY, USA, 2014. Association for Computing Machinery.

Truffle Blockchain Group. Truffle suite., 2020. Accessed: 2020-05-22.

Lijuan Guo, Xuelian Li, and Juntao Gai. Multi-party Fair Exchange Protocol with Smart Contract on Bitcoin. International Journal of Network Security, 21(1):71–82, 2019.

Danushka Jayasinghe, Konstantinos Markantonakis, and Keith Mayes. Optimistic fair-exchange with anonymity for bitcoin users. Proceedings - 11th IEEE International Conference on E-Business Engineering, ICEBE 2014 - Including 10th Workshop on Service-Oriented Applications, Integration and Collaboration, SOAIC 2014 and 1st Workshop on E-Commerce Engineering, ECE 2014, pages 44–51, 2014.

R. Karp. Reducibility among combinatorial problems. In R. Miller and J. Thatcher, editors, Complexity of Computer Computations, pages 85–103. Plenum Press, 1972.

Ranjit Kumaresan and Iddo Bentov. How to Use Bitcoin to Incentivize Correct Computations. Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS ’14, pages 30–41, 2014.

Ranjit Kumaresan, Tal Moran, and Iddo Bentov. How to Use Bitcoin to Play Decentralized Poker. Proceedings of the 22nd ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security - CCS ’15, pages 195–206, 2015.

Pierre K Y Lai, S M Yiu, K P Chow, C F Chong, and Lucas C K Hui. An efficient bloom filter based solution for multiparty private matching. Proceedings of the 2006 International Conference on Security & Management, SAM, pages 286–292, 2006.

Silvio Micali. Simple and fast optimistic protocols for fair electronic exchange. In Proceedings of the Twenty-Second Annual Symposium on Principles of Distributed Computing, PODC ’03, page 12–19, New York, NY, USA, 2003. Association for Computing Machinery.

Ryo Nojima and Youki Kadobayashi. Cryptographically secure bloom-filters. Transactions on Data Privacy, 2(2):131–139, 2009.

Henning Pagnia, Holger Vogt, and Felix C. Gärtner. Fair Exchange. The Computer Journal, 46(1):55–75, 01 2003.

F. Piva and R. Dahab. E-commerce and fair exchange - the problem of item validation. Proceedings of the International Conference on Security and Cryptography, pages 317–324, 2011.

Nick Szabo. Formalizing and Securing Relationships on Public Networks. First Monday, 2(9), 1997.

Gavin Wood et al. Ethereum: A secure decentralised generalised transaction ledger. Ethereum project yellow paper, 151(2014):1–32, 2014.
REIS, Matheus Cunha; SENDIN, Ivan da Silva. Towards to fair trade with item validation using Bloom Filters and Smart Contracts. In: WORKSHOP DE TRABALHOS DE INICIAÇÃO CIENTÍFICA E DE GRADUAÇÃO - SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE SEGURANÇA DA INFORMAÇÃO E DE SISTEMAS COMPUTACIONAIS (SBSEG), 20. , 2020, Evento Online. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2020 . p. 219-226. DOI: