Identifying Support for Knowledge-Intensive Processes in BPMN and its Extensions


Context: Business process modeling is widely used to increase the competitive advantage of organizations and Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN) is the standard language for modeling such processes. However, it is often extended to handle domain-specific processes or enhance the language itself. Problem: Applications of process-oriented approaches have reached new challenging, knowledge-intensive scenarios, such as healthcare, case management, and others. For these scenarios, it is common to observe functions involving collaborative resources and processes that are little structured, which do not have the same level of predictability as a structured work routine. This fact led to the definition of a new class of business processes, Knowledge-Intensive Processes (KIP). Solution: This paper investigates which requirements related to the modeling of KIP are met by the standard BPMN language and its extensions proposed in the literature. IS Theory: The paper explores the interaction between Structured Process Modeling Theory and Organizational Information Processing Theory applied to the context of business process management, especially related to knowledge-intensive processes in organizations. Method: We performed an analysis of the adherence of standard BPMN to the KIP modeling requirements and a systematic literature review identifying BPMN extensions, analyzing these proposals regarding their adherence to the same requirements. Summarization of Results: Twelve BPMN extensions were analyzed and compared according to a set of criteria. These extensions were obtained from the SCOPUS digital library and guided the conduct of the research. Contributions and Impact in the IS area: This paper is the first evaluation of BPMN and its extensions regarding KIP requirements. Moreover, we identified the main trends in the development of BPMN extensions related to KIP and some opportunities for future researches.
Palavras-chave: Knowledge-Intensive Process, BPMN, Business Process Model, Review, BPMN Extension


Ihsane Abouzid and Rajaa Saidi. 2020. Modeling the Use of RFID Technology in Smart Processes. In The Proceedings of the Third International Conference on Smart City Applications. Springer, 758–769.

Ahmed Awad, Alexander Grosskopf, Andreas Meyer, and Mathias Weske. 2009. Enabling resource assignment constraints in BPMN. Hasso Plattner Institute, Potsdam (2009).

Imen Ben Said, Mohamed Amine Chaâbane, Eric Andonoff, and Rafik Bouaziz. 2016. BPMN4V for modeling and handling versions of BPMN collaborations and choreographies. In International Conference on E-Business and Telecommunications. Springer, 99–123.

Paolo Bocciarelli, Andrea D'Ambrogio, Andrea Giglio, and Emiliano Paglia. 2016. A BPMN Extension to Enable the Explicit Modeling of Task Resources. In CIISE. 40–47.

Paolo Bocciarelli, Andrea D'Ambrogio, Andrea Giglio, and Emiliano Paglia. 2020. Modeling Resources to Simulate Business Process Reliability. ACM Transactions on Modeling and Computer Simulation (TOMACS) 30, 3 (2020), 1–25.

Richard Braun and Werner Esswein. 2014. Classification of domain-specific BPMN extensions. In IFIP Working Conference on The Practice of Enterprise Modeling. Springer, 42–57.

Claudio Di Ciccio, Andrea Marrella, and Alessandro Russo. 2015. Knowledge-intensive processes: characteristics, requirements and analysis of contemporary approaches. Journal on Data Semantics 4, 1 (2015), 29–57.

Marlon Dumas, Wil M Van der Aalst, and Arthur H Ter Hofstede. 2005. Process-aware information systems: bridging people and software through process technology. John Wiley & Sons.

Juliana B.S. França, Fernanda A. Baião, and Flavia M. Santoro. 2012. Towards characterizing Knowledge Intensive Processes. In Proceedings of the 2012 IEEE 16th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD). 497–504.

Florian Gallik, Yusuf Kirikkayis, and Manfred Reichert. 2022. Modeling, executing and monitoring IoT-aware processes with BPM technology. In 2022 International Conference on Service Science (ICSS). IEEE, 96–103.

Benedetto Intrigila, Giuseppe Della Penna, and Andrea D'Ambrogio. 2021. A Lightweight BPMN Extension for Business Process-Oriented Requirements Engineering. Computers 10, 12 (2021), 171.

Barbara Ann Kitchenham and Stuart Charters. 2007. Guidelines for performing Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering. Technical Report EBSE 2007-001. Keele University and Durham University Joint Report.

Ricardo Martinho, Dulce Domingos, and João Varajão. 2015. CF4BPMN: a BPMN extension for controlled flexibility in business processes. Procedia Computer Science 64 (2015), 1232–1239.

Joanne Netto, Juliana França, Fernanda Baião, and Flavia Santoro. 2013. A notation for Knowledge-Intensive Processes. In Proceedings of the 2013 IEEE 17th International Conference on Computer Supported Cooperative Work in Design (CSCWD). 190–195.

OMG. 2013. Business Process Model and Notation (BPMN), Version 2.0.2.

Raquel M Pillat, Toacy C Oliveira, Paulo SC Alencar, and Donald D Cowan. 2015. BPMNt: A BPMN extension for specifying software process tailoring. Information and Software Technology 57 (2015), 95–115.

Rachel Vital Simões, Glaucia Melo, Fernando Brito e Abreu, and Toacy Oliveira. 2021. Towards Understanding Quality-Related Characteristics in Knowledge-Intensive Processes-A Systematic Literature Review. In International Conference on the Quality of Information and Communications Technology. Springer, 197–207.

Diana Viktoria Strutzenberger, Juergen Mangler, and Stefanie Rinderle-Ma. 2021. BPMN Extensions for Modeling Continuous Processes. In International Conference on Advanced Information Systems Engineering. Springer, 20–28.

Chang-ai Sun, Jing Wang, Zhenxian Liu, and Yanbo Han. 2021. A Variability-Enabling and Model-Driven Approach to Adaptive Microservice-based Systems. In 2021 IEEE 45th Annual Computers, Software, and Applications Conference (COMPSAC). IEEE, 968–973.

Inese Supulniece, Ligita Businska, and Marite Kirikova. 2010. Towards extending BPMN with the knowledge dimension. In Enterprise, Business-Process and Information Systems Modeling. Springer, 69–81.

Alaaeddine Yousfi, Adrian De Freitas, Anind K Dey, and Rajaa Saidi. 2015. The use of ubiquitous computing for business process improvement. IEEE Transactions on Services Computing 9, 4 (2015), 621–632.

Karim Zarour, Djamel Benmerzoug, Nawal Guermouche, and Khalil Drira. 2019. A systematic literature review on BPMN extensions. Business Process Management Journal (2019).
Como Citar

Selecione um Formato
NUNES, Mariano de Oliveira; PILLAT, Raquel Mainardi; OLIVEIRA, Toacy Cavalcante de. Identifying Support for Knowledge-Intensive Processes in BPMN and its Extensions. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE SISTEMAS DE INFORMAÇÃO (SBSI), 19. , 2023, Maceió/AL. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2023 .