Towards Inclusive Software: Accessible Questionnaires for Deaf People

  • Débora Maria Barroso Paiva UFMS
  • Michele dos Santos Soares UFMS
  • Gênesis Medeiros do Carmo UFMS
  • Maria Istela Cagnin UFMS


Despite several initiatives to integrate accessibility to the Software Engineering (SE), in practice, little is known about both the participation of people with disabilities in the phases of the software development process and the methods used. Inclusive SE is a challenge and many research opportunities may be identified. In this scenario, our objective was to identify accessibility guidelines for questionnaires, an extensively used technique, aiming at the inclusion of deaf people in many activities of the software development process. We believe initiatives like these guidelines are a step towards the inclusion of deaf people during the whole software development process and could further contribute to the accessibility of software systems.

Palavras-chave: software accessibility, deaf, questionnaires


Berke, L., Huenerfauth, M., and Patel, K. (2019). Design and psychometric evaluation of american sign language translations of usability questionnaires. ACM Transactions on Accessible Computing, 12(2):1–43.

Bouraoui, A. and Gharbi, I. (2019). Model Driven Engineering of Accessible and Multi-Platform Graphical User Interfaces by Parameterized Model Transformations. Science of Computer Programming, 172:63–101.

Boyatzis, R. E. (1998). Transforming qualitative information: Thematic analysis and code development. Sage.

Braun, V. and Clarke, V. (2006). Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qualitative research in psychology, 3(2):77–101.

Bustillos, M. A. B., Maldonado-Macías, A. A., Arellano, J. L. H., and et al. (2019). Methodology for developing a usability assessment questionnaire in spanish as a bilingual strategy for software improvement: A validation approach. In Applied Psycholinguistics and Multilingual Cognition in Human Creativity, pages 149–177. IGi Global.

Dardenne, A., Fickas, S., and van Lamsweerde, A. (1991). Goal-directed concept acquisition in requirements elicitation. In Proceedings of the Sixth International Workshop on Software Specification and Design. IEEE Computer Society.

Dix, A., Finlay, J. E., Abowd, G. D., and Beale, R. (2003). Human-Computer Interaction. Pearson.

Fereday, J. and Muir-Cochrane, E. (2006). Demonstrating rigor using thematic analysis: A hybrid approach of inductive and deductive coding and theme development. International journal of qualitative methods, 5(1).

Ferreira, M. A. M. and Bonacin, R. (2014). Eliciting Accessibility Requirements for People with Hearing Loss: a Semantic and Norm Analysis. In International Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, pages 277–288. Springer.

Lazar, J., Feng, J. H., and Hochheiser, H. (2017). Research methods in human-computer interaction. Morgan Kaufmann.

Leitner, M.-L., Strauss, C., and Stummer, C. (2016). Web accessibility implementation in private sector organizations: motivations and business impact. Universal Access in the Information Society, 15(2):249–260.

Menezes, Á. and Prikladnicki, R. (2018). Diversity in software engineering. In Proceedings of the 11th International Workshop on Cooperative and Human Aspects of Software Engineering, pages 45–48.

Moore, J. M. and Shipman, F. M. (2000). A comparison of questionnaire-based and gui-based requirements gathering. In Proceedings ASE 2000. Fifteenth IEEE International Conference on Automated Software Engineering, pages 35–43. IEEE.

Nganji, J. T. and Nggada, S. H. (2011). Disability-aware Software Engineering for Improved International Journal of Software Engineering and Its System Accessibility and Usability. Applications, 5(3):47–62.

Nowell, L. S., Norris, J. M., White, D. E., and Moules, N. J. (2017). Thematic analysis: Striving to meet the trustworthiness criteria. International journal of qualitative methods, 16(1):1609406917733847.

Sanchez-Gordon, S., Sánchez-Gordón, M., Yilmaz, M., and O’Connor, R. V. (2019). Integration of Accessibility Design Patterns with the Software Implementation Process of ISO/IEC 29110. Journal of Software: Evolution and Process, 31(1):e1987.

Schrepp, M., Cota, M. P., Gonçalves, R., Hinderks, A., and Thomaschewski, J. (2017). Adaption of user experience questionnaires for different user groups. Universal Access in the Information Society, 16(3).

Silva, A. C. et al. (2020). Lessons learned about oral-auditory and visual-spatial communication in requirements engineering with deaf stakeholders. In Proceedings of the 35th Annual ACM Symposium on Applied Computing.

W3C (2019). Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI), Making the Web Accessible .

Wilson, C. (2013). Credible checklists and quality questionnaires: A user-centered design method. Newnes.

Wohlin, C., Runeson, P., Höst, M., Ohlsson, M. C., Regnell, B., and Wesslén, A. (2012). Experimentation in software engineering. Springer Science & Business Media.

Zubrow, D., Hayes, W., Siegel, J., and Goldenson, D. (1994). Maturity questionnaire. Technical report, Software Engineering Institute. Special Report CMU/SEI-94-SR-7.
PAIVA, Débora Maria Barroso; SOARES, Michele dos Santos; CARMO, Gênesis Medeiros do; CAGNIN, Maria Istela. Towards Inclusive Software: Accessible Questionnaires for Deaf People. In: WORKSHOP SOBRE ASPECTOS SOCIAIS, HUMANOS E ECONÔMICOS DE SOFTWARE (WASHES), 7. , 2022, Niterói. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2022 . p. 21-30. ISSN 2763-874X. DOI: