Active Learning and Case-Based Reasoning for the Deceptive Play in the Card Game of Truco

  • Daniel P. Vargas UFSM
  • Gustavo B. Paulus UFSM
  • Luis A. L. Silva UFSM


Deception is an essential behavior in many card games. Despite this fact, it is not trivial to capture the intent of a human strategist when making deceptive decisions. That is even harder when dealing with deception in card games, where components of uncertainty, hidden information, luck and randomness introduce the need of case-based decision making. Approaching this problem along with the investigation of the game of Truco, a quite popular game in Southern regions of South America, this work presents an approach that combines active learning and Case-Based Reasoning (CBR) in which agents request a human specialist to review a reused game action retrieved from a case base containing played Truco hands. That happens when the agents are confronted with game situations that are identified as opportunities for deception. The goal is to actively capture problem-solving experiences in which deception can be used, and later employ such case knowledge in the enhancement of the deceptive capabilities of the Truco agents. Experimental results show that the use of the learned cases enabled different kinds of Truco agents to play more aggressively, being more deceptive and performing a larger number of successful bluffs.
Palavras-chave: Deception, Case-based reasoning, Active learning
VARGAS, Daniel P.; PAULUS, Gustavo B.; SILVA, Luis A. L.. Active Learning and Case-Based Reasoning for the Deceptive Play in the Card Game of Truco. In: BRAZILIAN CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS (BRACIS), 10. , 2021, Online. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2021 . ISSN 2643-6264.