Caracterização de bots no Twitter durante as Eleições Presidenciais no Brasil em 2018

  • Gabriel P. Nobre UFMG
  • Jussara M. Almeida UFMG
  • Carlos H. G. Ferreira UFMG


Em 2018 ocorreram as Eleições Presidenciais no Brasil e foi frequenemente divulgado pela mı́dia que bots foram utilizados nas redes sociais para compartilhar fake news e aumentar o engajamento de candidatos. Com isso, o objetivo deste trabalho é caracterizar o comportamento desses usuários no Twitter durante as campanhas eleitorais. Para tanto, foram identificados mais de 2000 usuários bots, com métricas de atividade calculadas e comparadas com usuários comuns. Enfim, a influência de tais usuários foi quantificada e os resultados indicam que os bots afetaram as discussões online.

Palavras-chave: Bots, Eleições, Twitter, Brasil, Caracterização


Abokhodair, N., Yoo, D., and McDonald, D. W. (2015). Dissecting a social botnet: Growth, content and influence in twitter. In Proceedings of the 18th ACM Confe- rence on Computer Supported Cooperative Work & Social Computing, CSCW 2015, Vancouver, BC, Canada, March 14 - 18, 2015, pages 839–851.

Anger, I. and Kittl, C. (2011). Measuring influence on twitter. In I-KNOW 2011, 11th International Conference on Knowledge Management and Knowledge Technologies, Graz, Austria, September 7-9, 2011, page 31.

Bakshy, E., Hofman, J. M., Mason, W. A., and Watts, D. J. (2011). Everyone’s an in- fluencer: quantifying influence on twitter. In Proceedings of the Forth International Conference on Web Search and Web Data Mining, WSDM 2011, Hong Kong, China, February 9-12, 2011, pages 65–74.

Bence Kollanyi, P. N. H. and Woolley, S. C. (2016). Bots and automation over twitter during the u.s. election.

Bessi, A. and Ferrara, E. (2016). Social bots distort the 2016 U.S. presidential election online discussion. First Monday, 21(11).

Caetano, J. A., Almeida, J. M., and Marques-Neto, H. T. (2018). Characterizing politi- cally engaged users’ behavior during the 2016 US presidential campaign. In Brandes, U., Reddy, C., and Tagarelli, A., editors, IEEE/ACM 2018 International Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2018, Barcelona, Spain, August 28-31, 2018, pages 523–530. IEEE Computer Society.

Caetano, J. A., Lima, H. S., dos Santos, M. F., and Marques-Neto, H. T. (2017). Uti- lizando análise de sentimentos para definição da homofilia polı́tica dos usuários do twitter durante a eleição presidencial americana de 2016.

Cha, M., Haddadi, H., Benevenuto, F., and Gummadi, P. K. (2010). Measuring user influ- ence in twitter: The million follower fallacy. In Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, ICWSM 2010, Washington, DC, USA, May 23-26, 2010.

Cristina Tardáguila, F. B. and Ortellado, P. (2018). Fake news is poisoning brazi- lian politics. whatsapp can stop it. 17/opinion/brazil-election-fake-news-whatsapp.html. Acces- sed: 2018-12-02.

Dickerson, J. P., Kagan, V., and Subrahmanian, V. S. (2014). Using sentiment to detect bots on twitter: Are humans more opinionated than bots? In 2014 IEEE/ACM Inter-national Conference on Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining, ASONAM 2014, Beijing, China, August 17-20, 2014, pages 620–627.

Dong, G. and Liu, H. (2018). Feature engineering for machine learning and data analytics.

Dubois, E. and Gaffney, D. (2014). The multiple facets of influence: Identifying political influentials and opinion leaders on twitter. American Behavioral Scientist, 58(10) 1260.

Ferrara, E., Varol, O., Davis, C. A., Menczer, F., and Flammini, A. (2014). The rise of social bots. CoRR, abs/1407.5225.

Howard, P. N. and Kollanyi, B. (2016). Bots, #strongerin, and #brexit: Computational propaganda during the UK-EU referendum. CoRR, abs/1606.06356.

Long, C. (2018). How false news haunted the brazilian elec- tions. brazil-election-fake-news-whatsapp-facebook.html. Acces- sed: 2018-12-02.

Messias, J., Schmidt, L., Oliveira, R., and Benevenuto, F. (2013). You followed my bot! transforming robots into influential users in twitter. First Monday, 18(7).

Owen, L. H. (2018). What to know about whatsapp in brazil ahead of sunday’s election. what-to-know-about-whatsapp-in-brazil-ahead-of-sundays-election/. Accessed: 2018-12-02.

Ratkiewicz, J., Conover, M. D., Meiss, M. R., Goncalves, B., Flammini, A., and Menczer, F. (2011). Detecting and tracking political abuse in social media. In Adamic, L. A., Baeza-Yates, R. A., and Counts, S., editors, Proceedings of the Fifth International Conference on Weblogs and Social Media, Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain, July 17-21, 2011. The AAAI Press.

Rizoiu, M., Graham, T., Zhang, R., Zhang, Y., Ackland, R., and Xie, L. (2018). #de- batenight: The role and influence of socialbots on twitter during the 1st 2016 U.S. presidential debate. In Proceedings of the Twelfth International Conference on Web and Social Media, ICWSM 2018, Stanford, California, USA, June 25-28, 2018., pages 300–309.

Stieglitz, S. and Dang-Xuan, L. (2012). Political communication and influence through microblogging-an empirical analysis of sentiment in twitter messages and retweet behavior. In 45th Hawaii International International Conference on Systems Science (HICSS-45 2012), Proceedings, 4-7 January 2012, Grand Wailea, Maui, HI, USA, pa- ges 3500–3509. IEEE Computer Society.

Tinati, R., Carr, L., Hall, W., and Bentwood, J. (2012). Identifying communicator roles in twitter. In Mille, A., Gandon, F. L., Misselis, J., Rabinovich, M., and Staab, S., editors, Proceedings of the 21st World Wide Web Conference, WWW 2012, Lyon, France, April 16-20, 2012 (Companion Volume), pages 1161–1168. ACM.

Twitter (2018). Twitter developper. html. Accessed: 2018-12-02.
Como Citar

Selecione um Formato
NOBRE, Gabriel P.; ALMEIDA, Jussara M. ; FERREIRA, Carlos H. G. . Caracterização de bots no Twitter durante as Eleições Presidenciais no Brasil em 2018. In: BRAZILIAN WORKSHOP ON SOCIAL NETWORK ANALYSIS AND MINING (BRASNAM), 8. , 2019, Belém. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2019 . p. 107-118. ISSN 2595-6094. DOI: