Using Genetic Algorithms to Design an Optimized Keyboard Layout for Brazilian Portuguese
Currently, keyboards are the most common means of communicating with computers. Despite being the most commonly used keyboard layout, QWERTY has had various issues raised concerning its effectiveness, as it is not efficient in English (target language) or in fact other languages. Therefore, this paper presents the development process of a Genetic Algorithm with the intention of generating a more adequate and coherent layout proposal for Brazilian Portuguese, which has its focus on ergonomics and user productivity. Using five ergonomic criteria and a statistical analysis of the characters and sequences of most frequently used pairs in Brazilian Portuguese, a layout approximately 53% better than QWERTY was obtained.
Deshwal, P. S. and Deb, K. (2003). Design of an optimal hindi keyboard for convenient and efficient use. Technical Report KanGAL 2003005, Indian Institute of Technology, Kanpur.
Dvorak, A. and Dealey, W. L. (1936). Typewriter keyboard. US Patent 2,040,248.
Eggers, J., Feillet, D., Kehl, S., Wagner, M. O., and Yannou, B. (2003). Optimization of the keyboard arrangement problem using an ant colony algorithm. European Journal of Operational Research, 148(3):672–686.
Garbe, J. U. (2000). Optimizing the layout of an ambiguous keyboard using a genetic algorithm. Master’s thesis, Universität Koblenz-Landau, Department of Computer Scence, Germany.
Goldberg, D. E. (1989). Genetic Algorithms in Search, Optimization and Machine Learning. Addison-Wesley Longman Publishing Co. Inc., Boston, MA, United States.
Goldberg, D. E. and Lingle, R. (1985). Alleles, loci and the travelling salesman problem. In Proceedings of the First International Conference on Genetic Algorithms and Their Applications, pages 154–159, Pittsburgh, PA, United States. Psychology Press.
Heidner, F. (1915). Type-writing machine. US Patent 1,138,474.
Khorshid, E., Alfadli, A., and Majeed, M. (2010). A new optimal arabic keyboard layout using genetic algorithm. International Journal of Design Engineering, 3(1):25–40.
Liao, C. and Choe, P. (2013). Chinese keyboard layout design based on polyphone disambiguation and a genetic algorithm. International Journal of Human-Computer Interaction, 29(6):391–403.
Light, L. W. and Anderson, P. G. (1993). Typewriter keyboards via simulated annealing. AI Expert, September:1–11.
Noyes, J. (1983). The qwerty keyboard: A review. International Journal of Man-Machine Studies, 18(3):265–281.
Noyes, J. (1998). Qwerty-the immortal keyboard. Computing & Control Engineering Journal, 9(3):117–122.
Oommen, B. J. and Zgierski, J. R. (1991). Keyboard optimization using genetic techniques. In 1991 Tenth Annual International Phoenix Conference on Computers and Communications, pages 726–732, Scottsdale, AZ, USA. IEEE.
Rani, S., Suri, B., and Goyal, R. (2019). On the effectiveness of using elitist genetic algorithm in mutation testing. Symmetry, 11(9).
Tomassini, M. (1995). A survey of genetic algorithms. Annual reviews of computational physics, 3(1):87–118.
Wagner, M. O., Yannou, B., Kehl, S., Feillet, D., and Eggers, J. (2003). Ergonomic modelling and optimization of the keyboard arrangement with an ant colony algorithm. Journal of Engineering Design, 14(2):187–208.