Improving Interoperability between Relational and Blockchain-based Database Systems: A Middleware approach

  • Rafael Avilar Sá Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC)
  • Leonardo O. Moreira Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC)
  • Javam C. Machado Universidade Federal do Ceará (UFC)


Multi-model, federated and polystore architectures allow for querying data from different sources through a unified interface, providing interoperability for databases. However, support for blockchain-based databases remains scarce. MOON is a middleware designed to enable cross-model querying of data in relational and blockchain databases through standard SQL syntax. This paper aims to promote the interoperability of blockchain-based and relational database systems through a new approach, called Inter-MOON. Through experimentation, Inter-MOON was found to offer near-total support for SQL DML query syntax, be up to 10x faster than MOON, and show comparable performance to similar tools.

Palavras-chave: Database Interoperability, Database Architecture, Blockchain, Multistores, SQL, Middleware


Babcock, B., Babu, S., Datar, M., Motwani, R., and Widom, J. (2002). Models and issues in data stream systems. In Proceedings of the Twenty-First ACM SIGMOD-SIGACT-SIGART Symposium on Principles of Database Systems, PODS ’02, page 1–16, New York, NY, USA. Association for Computing Machinery.

Bondiombouy, C., Kolev, B., Levchenko, O., and Valduriez, P. (2016). Multistore big data integration with cloudmdsql. Transactions on Large-Scale Data-and Knowledge-Centered Systems XXVIII: Special Issue on Database-and Expert-Systems Applications, pages 48–74.

Duggan, J., Elmore, A. J., Stonebraker, M., Balazinska, M., Howe, B., Kepner, J., Madden, S., Maier, D., Mattson, T., and Zdonik, S. (2015). The bigdawg polystore system. ACM Sigmod Record, 44(2):11–16.

Gadekallu, T. R., Huynh-The, T., Wang, W., Yenduri, G., Ranaweera, P., Pham, Q.-V., da Costa, D. B., and Liyanage, M. (2022). Blockchain for the metaverse: A review. arXiv preprint arXiv:2203.09738.

Gervais, A., Karame, G. O., Wüst, K., Glykantzis, V., Ritzdorf, H., and Capkun, S. (2016). On the security and performance of proof of work blockchains. In 2016 ACM SIGSAC Conference on Computer and Communications Security, CCS ’16, page 3–16, New York, NY, USA. Association for Computing Machinery.

Hasselbring, W. (2000). Information system integration. Communications of the ACM, 43(6):32–38.

Holovaty, A. and Kaplan-Moss, J. (2009). The definitive guide to Django: Web development done right. Apress.

LeFevre, J., Sankaranarayanan, J., Hacigumus, H., Tatemura, J., Polyzotis, N., and Carey, M. J. (2014). Miso: Souping up big data query processing with a multistore system. In Proceedings of the 2014 ACM SIGMOD International Conference on Management of Data, SIGMOD ’14, page 1591–1602, New York, NY, USA. Association for Computing Machinery.

Marinho, S. C., Costa Filho, J. S., Moreira, L. O., and Machado, J. C. (2020). Using a hybrid approach to data management in relational database and blockchain: A case study on the e-health domain. In 2020 IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture Companion (ICSA-C), pages 114–121. IEEE.

Melton, J. (2016). Iso/iec 9075-1 information technology-database languages-sql-part 1: Framework (sql/framework). ISO/IEC, 2016(E):9075–1.

Meyer, J. V. and dos Santos Mello, R. (2022). An analysis of data modelling for blockchain. In Information Integration and Web Intelligence: 24th International Conference, iiWAS 2022, Virtual Event, November 28–30, 2022, Proceedings, pages 31–44. Springer.

Nakamoto, S. (2008). Bitcoin: A peer-to-peer electronic cash system. Decentralized Business Review, page 21260.

Politou, E., Casino, F., Alepis, E., and Patsakis, C. (2019). Blockchain mutability: Challenges and proposed solutions. IEEE Transactions on Emerging Topics in Computing, 9(4):1972–1986.

Singhal, R., Zhang, N., Nardi, L., Shahbaz, M., and Olukotun, K. (2019). Polystore++: accelerated polystore system for heterogeneous workloads. In 2019 IEEE 39th International Conference on Distributed Computing Systems (ICDCS), pages 1641–1651. IEEE.

Stauffer, M. (2019). Laravel: Up & running: A framework for building modern PHP apps. O’Reilly Media.

Stonebraker, M. and Çetintemel, U. (2018). "One Size Fits All": An Idea Whose Time Has Come and Gone, page 441–462. Association for Computing Machinery and Morgan & Claypool.

Vogt, M., Stiemer, A., and Schuldt, H. (2018). Polypheny-db: towards a distributed and self-adaptive polystore. In 2018 IEEE International Conference on Big Data (Big Data), pages 3364–3373. IEEE.

Yuan, Y. and Wang, F.-Y. (2018). Blockchain and cryptocurrencies: Model, techniques, and applications. IEEE Transactions on Systems, Man, and Cybernetics: Systems, 48(9):1421–1428.

Zheng, Z., Xie, S., Dai, H.-N., Chen, X., and Wang, H. (2018). Blockchain challenges and opportunities: A survey. International Journal of Web and Grid Services, 14(4):352–375.

Zhou, Q., Huang, H., Zheng, Z., and Bian, J. (2020). Solutions to scalability of blockchain: A survey. Ieee Access, 8:16440–16455.
SÁ, Rafael Avilar; MOREIRA, Leonardo O.; MACHADO, Javam C.. Improving Interoperability between Relational and Blockchain-based Database Systems: A Middleware approach. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE BANCO DE DADOS (SBBD), 38. , 2023, Belo Horizonte/MG. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2023 . p. 115-127. ISSN 2763-8979. DOI: