Support for Requirement Traceability: The Tropos Case

  • Rosa Candida Pinto UFPE
  • Carla Silva UFPE
  • Jaelson Castro UFPE


For many years, the research and business communities have agreed that the traceability is very important in the software development process. It helps the impact analysis of required changes, improving the efficient management of software projects and hopefully improving the software quality. Software development methodologies supporting requirement traceability can develop and maintain higher quality software with less cost. Our research aims to support traceability through the agent-oriented software lifecycle. In particular, this paper proposes a requirement traceability process to be used in the requirements specifications and system architecture models of the Tropos framework. An e-commerce example is used to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed approach.


Booch, G., Rumbauch, J. and Jacobson, I. (1999) The Inified Modeling Language User Guide. Addison-Wesley: Reading, MA.

Bresciani, P., Giorgini, P., Giunchiglia, F., Mylopoulos, J. and Perini, A. (2004) "Tropos: An Agent-Oriented Software Development Methodology'", in Autonomous Agents and Multi-Agent Systems 8 (3): 203-236, May 2004.

Castor, A., Pinto, R., Castro, J. and Silva, C. (2004) "Towards Requirement Traceability in TROPOS", in Proc. of the VII Workshop on Requirements Engineering (WER'04), Tandil, Argentina.

Castro, J., Kolp, M. and Mylopoulos, J. (2002) "Towards Requirements-Driven Information Systems Engineering: The Tropos Project". Information Systems Journal, Elsevier, Vol 27, pp. 365-89.

Chung, L. K., Nixon, B. A., Yu, E. and Mylopoulos, J. (2000) "Non-Functional Requirements in Software Engineering", Kluwer Publishing.

Cysneiros Filho, G., Zisman, A. and Spanoudakis, G. (2003) "Traceability Approach for I* and UML Models", in Proceedings of 2nd International Workshop on Software Engineering for Large-Scale Multi-Agent Systems (SELMAS'03), Portland, May 2003.

Giorgini, P., Kolp, M., Mylopoulos, J. and Castro, J. (2005) Tropos: "A Requirements-Driven Methodology for Agent-Oriented Software". Book Chapter. In Agent-Oriented Methodologies. ed.: Idea Group, p. 20-45.

Gotel, O. (1996) "Contribution Structures for Requirements Engineering". PhD Thesis. Department of Computing, Imperial College of Science, Technology, and Medicine, London, U.K.

Haumer, P. (2000) A Framework to Improve Requirements Traceability. Ph.D thesis, Informatik V. RWTH Auchen, Auchen, Germanyl, Octuber 2000.

Kolp, M., Giorgini, P. and Mylopoulos, J.(2002) "Information Systems Development through Social Structures", in Proc. of the 14th Int. Conf. on Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering (SEKE'02), Ishia, Italy.

Pinheiro, F. A. C. (2003) "Requirements Traceability", Chapter of the Book Perspectives On Software Requirements. Kluwer Academic Publishers.

Pinto, R., Silva, C. and Castro, J. (2005) "A process for Requirement Traceability in Agent Oriented Development" in Proceedings of WER 2005. Workshop on Requirements Engineering, Porto, Portugal, pp 221-232.

Ramesh, B. and Jarke, M. (2001) "Towards Reference Models For Requirements Traceability". IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering, vol. 27, pp. 58-93, January 2001.

Toranzo, M. and Castro, J. (1999) "A Comprehensive Traceability Model to Support the Design of Interactive Systems", in WISDOM'99 - International Workshop on Interactive system Development and Object Models, 1999, Lisboa. 1999. Also described in NUNES, N., et all, Interactive System Design and Object Models In: International Workshop on Interactive System Development and Object Models, 1999, Lisboa. ECOOP'99 - Workshop Reader. London: Springer verlag - Lecture Notes in Computer Science LNCS, 1999. v.1743. p.267 - 287

Toranzo, M. (2002) "A Framework to Improve Requirements Traceability" (in Portuguese: Um Framework para Melhorar o Rastreamento de Requisitos). Ph.D thesis, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco, Centro de Informática, Brazil, December 2002.

Wooldridge, M. (1999) Intelligent Agents, in G. Weiss, editor. Multiagent Systems, the MIT Press, April 1999.

Wooldridge, M. J. (2002) Introduction to Multiagent Systems. John Wiley and Sons, New York, NY, USA.

Yu, E. (1995) "Modelling Strategic Relationships for Process Reengineering". Ph.D thesis, University of Toronto, Department of Computer Science.

Zisman, A., Spanoudakis, G., Pérez-Miñana, E. and Krause, P. (2003) "Tracing Software Requirements Artefacts", in The 2003 International Conference on Software Engineering Research and Practice (SERP 2003) in conjunction with The International Multiconference in Computer Science and Computer Engineering, Las Vegas, June 2003.
PINTO, Rosa Candida; SILVA, Carla; CASTRO, Jaelson. Support for Requirement Traceability: The Tropos Case. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE ENGENHARIA DE SOFTWARE (SBES), 19. , 2005, Uberlândia/MG. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2005 . p. 40-55. DOI: