Emergent Behavior in System-of-Systems: A Systematic Mapping Study
A systems-of-systems (SoS) is a class of systems characterized by the collaboration among independent constituent systems, each one with its own purposes and functionalities and interacting with the others aiming to meet common global missions. An essential characteristic of any SoS is the so-called emergent behavior, which stands for the ability of an SoS of providing new functionalities resulted from the runtime collaboration among the constituent systems and that are not performed by any of them in isolation. Despite the importance of this subject, it is possible to notice that there are some lacks related to understanding emergent behavior in SoS, how it manifests, and which challenges it imposes to the development of this class of systems. This paper presents a systematic mapping study aimed to elicit and analyze the state-of-the-art on emergent behavior in SoS. By following a systematic procedure of search and selection of primary studies, a set of 37 existing studies was analyzed with respect to contributions related to emergent behavior in SoS. Obtained results show that the studies do not deeply investigate emergent behavior even though they mention this characteristic. Grounded on such a discussion, this work also presents a research agenda with directions for further work on the topic.
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