How do we perceive Characters? An Analysis of Human Perception in Still Images, Animations and VR Scenarios

  • Victor Araujo PUCRS
  • Bruna Dalmoro PUCRS
  • Rafael Geiss PUCRS
  • Márcio S. Pinho PUCRS
  • Soraia R. Musse PUCRS


Virtual characters can elicit an uncomfortable sensation usually known as Uncanny Valley (UV). Evidence suggests that animation exacerbates the UV effect. This paper revisits the UV hypothesis to assess its effects on people’s perception of virtual characters, to try to answer the questions “What happens to the perceptual comfort if, in addition to images and videos of characters, we include those characters in an interactive Virtual Reality (VR) environment?”, and “Considering the VR environment, do people feel equally comfortable if we increase the number of characters?”. The results indicate that there are differences in the perception of scenarios with low and high densities.

Palavras-chave: Uncanny Valley, Perception, Perceived Comfort


Araujo, V., Melgare, J., Dalmoro, B., and Musse, S. R. (2021). Is the perceived comfort with cg characters increasing with their novelty. IEEE Computer Graphics and Applications.

Flach, L. M., de Moura, R. H., Musse, S. R., Dill, V., Pinho, M. S., and Lykawka, C. (2012). Evaluation of the uncanny valley in cg characters. In Proceedings of the Brazilian Symposium on Computer Games and Digital Entertainmen (SBGames)(Brasiília), pages 108–116.

Hodgins, J., Jörg, S., O’Sullivan, C., Park, S. I., and Mahler, M. (2010). The saliency of anomalies in animated human characters. ACM Transactions on Applied Perception (TAP), 7(4):22.

Kätsyri, J., Förger, K., Mäkäräinen, M., and Takala, T. (2015). A review of empirical evidence on different uncanny valley hypotheses: support for perceptual mismatch as one road to the valley of eeriness. Frontiers in psychology, 6:390.

Kätsyri, J., Mäkäräinen, M., and Takala, T. (2017). Testing the ’uncanny valley’ hypothesis in semirealistic computer-animated film characters: An empirical evaluation of natural film stimuli. International Journal of Human-Computer Studies, 97:149–161.

MacDorman, K. F. and Chattopadhyay, D. (2016). Reducing consistency in human realism increases the uncanny valley effect; increasing category uncertainty does not. Cognition, 146:190–205.

McDonnell, R., Larkin, M., Dobbyn, S., Collins, S., and O’Sullivan, C. (2008). Clone attack! perception of crowd variety. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2008 papers, pages 1–8.

Molina, E., Ríos, A., and Pelechano, N. (2021). The impact of animations in the perception of a simulated crowd. In Computer Graphics International Conference, pages 25–38. Springer.

Mori, M., MacDorman, K. F., and Kageki, N. (2012). The uncanny valley [from the field]. IEEE Robotics & Automation Magazine, 19(2):98–100.

Musse, S. R., Cassol, V. J., and Thalmann, D. (2021). A history of crowd simulation: the past, evolution, and new perspectives. The Visual Computer, pages 1–16.

Pelechano, N. and Allbecky, J. M. (2016). Feeling crowded yet?: crowd simulations for vr. In 2016 IEEE Virtual Humans and Crowds for Immersive Environments (VHCIE), pages 17–21. IEEE.

Schwind, V., Wolf, K., and Henze, N. (2018). Avoiding the uncanny valley in virtual character design. interactions, 25(5):45–49.

Seymour, M., Riemer, K., and Kay, J. (2017). Interactive realistic digital avatars-revisiting the uncanny valley. In Proceedings of the 50th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, pages 547–556.

Zell, E., Zibrek, K., and McDonnell, R. (2019). Perception of virtual characters. In ACM SIGGRAPH 2019 Courses, pages 1–17.

Zibrek, K., Kokkinara, E., and McDonnell, R. (2018). The effect of realistic appearance of virtual characters in immersive environments-does the character’s personality play a role? IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, 24(4):1681–1690.
Como Citar

Selecione um Formato
ARAUJO, Victor; DALMORO, Bruna; GEISS, Rafael; PINHO, Márcio S.; MUSSE, Soraia R.. How do we perceive Characters? An Analysis of Human Perception in Still Images, Animations and VR Scenarios. In: TRILHA DE COMPUTAÇÃO – ARTIGOS CURTOS - SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE JOGOS E ENTRETENIMENTO DIGITAL (SBGAMES), 21. , 2022, Natal/RN. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2022 . p. 295-300. DOI: