The Unlimited Rulebook: Architecting the Economy Mechanics of Games

  • Wilson Kazuo Mizutani USP
  • Fabio Kon USP


Economy mechanics involve resource management, combat, object interactions, and power progression systems in games. There is a lack of development tools to reduce their implementation cost while still being game or genre-agnostic. The Unlimited Rulebook is a reference architecture designed to fulfill this purpose, especially for games that lean heavily on self-amending rules and continuous releases. Developed using a consolidated process for reference architectures, our solution effectively reduces implementation effort in the long run in exchange for a thoughtful upfront investment to design a game system.

Palavras-chave: Digital games, software architecture, economy mechanics, reference architecture


Adams, E. and Dormans, J. (2012). Game Mechanics: Advanced Game Design. New Riders.

Campbell, D. T. and Stanley, J. C. (1963). Handbook of research on teaching., chapter Experimental and Quasi-Experimental Designs for Research, pages 1–71.

Furtado, A. W. B. (2012). Domain-Specific Game Development. PhD thesis, Universidade Federal de Pernambuco.

Gregory, J. (2019). Game engine architecture, third edition. CRC Press.

Mizutani, W. K., K. Daros, V., and Kon, F. (2021). Software architecture for digital game mechanics: A systematic literature review. Entertainment Computing, 38:100421.

Mizutani, W. K. and Kon, F. (2019). Toward a reference architecture for economy mechanics in digital games. In Proceedings of the Brazilian Symposium on Games and Digital Entertainment (SBGames), pages 623–626.

Mizutani, W. K. and Kon, F. (2020). Unlimited rulebook: a reference architecture for economy mechanics in digital games. In Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Software Architecture (ICSA), pages 58–68.

Nakagawa, E. Y., Guessi, M., Maldonado, J. C., Feitosa, D., and Oquendo, F. (2014). Consolidating a process for the design, representation, and evaluation of reference architectures. In Proceedings-Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture 2014, WICSA 2014, pages 143–152.

Nakagawa, E. Y., Oliveira, P., and Becker, A. M. (2011). Reference Architecture and Product Line Architecture: A Comparison. In European Conference on Software Architecture (ECSA), pages 2–5.

Nystrom, R. (2014). Game Programming Patterns. Genever Benning. Peter Suber (1982). Nomic: A Game of Self-Amendment, [link], Julho de 2022.

Wang, A. I. and Nordmark, N. (2015). Software Architectures and the Creative Processes in Game Development. In International Conference on Entertainment Computing.

West, C. (2018). Using Rust For Game Development.

Zhong, X. and Xu, J. (2021). Game updates enhance players’ engagement: a case of dota2. pages 117–123.

Zhu, M. (2014). Model-Driven Game Development Addressing Architectural Diversity and Game Engine-Integration. PhD thesis, Department of Computer and Information Science Faculty, Norwegian University of Science and Technology.
MIZUTANI, Wilson Kazuo; KON, Fabio. The Unlimited Rulebook: Architecting the Economy Mechanics of Games. In: CONCURSO DE TESES E DISSERTAÇÕES – DOUTORADO - SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE JOGOS E ENTRETENIMENTO DIGITAL (SBGAMES), 21. , 2022, Natal/RN. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2022 . p. 1402-1406. DOI: