Students' perceptions of academic performance in Distance Education evaluated by Learning Analytics and Ontologies
Keeping track of student learning progress in the Distance Education it is a challenge for education specialists because it is always not possible to adopt the same evaluation mechanisms as traditional education due to transactional distance between educators and students. To help educators in the process of evaluating the acquisition of skills and monitoring students' learning experiences, we present the SapeS architecture, which uses Learning Analytics and Ontologies to produce information about student performance. This architecture enables both educators and students to intervene in the teaching process and promotes autonomy to students successfully achieve their planned objectives. This proposal was based on the Design Science Research methodology, which enables the production and evaluation of the proposed solution to better understand its viability in the participant's real context.
Bloom, B. S., Engelhart, M. D., Furst, E. J., Hill, W. H. H., and Krathwohl, D. R. (1956). Taxonomy of educational objectives: The classification of educational goals. Handbook I: Cognitive domain. New York: David McKay Company.
Cabrera-Loayza, M. C., Cadme, E., Elizalde, R., and Piedra, N. (2020). Learning analytics as a tool to support teaching. In International Conference on Applied Technologies. Springer, Cham.
Cho, Y. and Lee, J. (2016). Reference models of learning analytics and defining system requirements. In KAIE Academic Collection. Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.
Costa, L. A., Sanches, L. M. P., Amorim, R. J. R., Salvador, L. N., and Souza, M. V. S. (2020). Monitoring academic performance based on learning analytics and ontology: A systematic review. In Informatics in Education. DOI:, 10.15388/infedu.2020.17.
Costa, L. A., Sanches, L. M. P., Salvador, L. N., and Souza, M. S. (2019). An ontological model to assist educators in evaluation of student academic performance in distance learning (in portuguese). In Ontobras 2019 - XII Seminar on Ontology Research in Brazil. CEUR-WS.
Costa, L. A., Sanches, L. M. P., Salvador, L. N., SOUZA, M. V. S., and AMORIM, R. J. (2018). Ontolo: Um modelo ontológico para avaliar o desempenho acadêmico na educação a distância. DOI:. 10.5753/cbie.sbie.2018.1898.
Fotiadou, A., Angelaki, C., and Mavroidis, I. (2017). Learner autonomy as a factor of the learning process in distance education. In Distance and E-Learning. European Journal of Open.
Freire, P. (2002). Pedagogy of autonomy :necessary knowledges practice to educational practice.(In Portuguese). ed. Sao Paulo: Paz e Terra.
Fuller, R. (1965). World design science decade, 1965-1975. World Resources Inventory, Illinois: Southern Illinois University.
Gregory, S. A. (1966). The design method. Nova Iorque: Springer Science + Business Media.
Gruber, T. (2009). Ontology in the encyclopedia of database systems. In Ling Liu and M. Tamer Ozsü. Springer-Verlag
Inmon, W. H. (2016). Data Lake Architecture: Designing the Data Lake and avoiding the garbage dump. Technics Publications.
Li, X., Wang, T., and Wang, H. (2017). Exploring n-gram features in clickstream data for mooc learning achievement prediction. In Database Systems for Advanced Applications - Springer. DOI:, 10.1007/978-3-319-55705-2 26.
Nussbaumer, A., Scheffel, M., Niemann, K., Kravcik, M., and Albert, D. (2012). Detecting and reflecting learning activities in personal learning environments. In Workshop on Awareness and Reflection in Technology-Enhanced Learning. CEUR-WS.
Palvia, S., Aeron, P., Gupta, P., Mahapatra, D., Parida, R., Rosner, R., and Sindhi, S. (2018). Online education: Worldwide status, challenges, trends, and implications. In Journal of Global Information Technology Management, volume 21, pages 233–241. DOI:, 10.1080/1097198X.2018.1542262.
Takeda, H., Veerkamp, P., Tomiyama, T., and Yoshikawam, H. (1990). Modeling design process. In AI Magazine, volume 11, DOI:. 10.1609/aimag.v11i4.855.
TR20748-1, I. (2016). Information technology for learning, education and training — learning analytics interoperability — part 1: Reference model. In Technical Report. ISO/IEC.
Vaishnavi, V., Kuechler, W., and Petter, S. (2004). Design research in information systems. In Design Science Research in Information Systems and Technology. DESRIST.
Wang, S. and Wang, H. (2013). A General Structure of Applied Design Research Studies. In: Northheast Decision Sciences Institute.
Yago, H., Clemente, J., Rodriguez, D., and de Cordoba, P. F. (2019). On-smmile: Ontology network-based student model for multiple learning environments. In Data Knowledge Engineering. DOI:, 10.1016/j.datak.2018.02.002.
Yamada, M., Okubo, F., Oi, M., Shimada, A., Kojima, K., and Ogata, H. (2016). Learning analytics in ubiquitous learning environments: Self-regulated learning perspective. In ICCE - 24th International Conference on Computers in Education. Asia-Pacific Society for Computers in Education.