How does diversity manifest itself in software ecosystems?


Context: Diversity has been addressed in software ecosystem studies in recent years, aiming at the inclusion and collaboration of different groups within organizations and communities. Its several forms of manifesting have required a better understanding of its effects on the ecosystem. Problem: Since an ecosystem involves the interaction of actors over a common technological platform that supports software solutions or services, the diversity and the relationships between different actors remain a challenge, especially in order to sustain the ecosystem and stimulate its growth. Solution: This study aims to understand how diversity manifests itself in the ecosystem context, based on the existing studies. IS Theory: The research was developed under the aegis of the General Systems Theory, focusing on the relationships between the elements of the system. Method: A systematic mapping study was carried out to identify and characterize how diversity in ecosystems has been discussed, which approaches have been applied and which effects are observed. Results: Based on 13 selected studies, we observed that the most discussed type is demographic diversity and the subtype is gender diversity. It was also noticed that gender diversity increases the productivity of development teams, despite the fact that they are still mostly male. Additionally, an analysis was carried out on how these studies discuss diversity in light of the 15 human, technical and organizational factors of ecosystems. Contribution: The five factors that most affect diversity in ecosystems were identified and actionable approaches were suggested to increase diversity in ecosystems, contributing to the Grand Research Challenge in Information Systems “Information Systems and the Open World Challenges”.
Palavras-chave: Diversity, Software Ecosystem, Systematic Mapping Study


Joop Aué, Michiel Haisma, Kristín Fjóla Tómasdóttir, and Alberto Bacchelli. 2016. Social Diversity and Growth Levels of Open Source Software Projects on GitHub. In Proceedings of the 10th ACM/IEEE International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement. ACM, Ciudad Real Spain, 1–6. 

Olavo Barbosa, R. Santos, C. Alves, C. Werner, and S. Jansen. 2013. A systematic mapping study on software ecosystems from a three-dimensional perspective: Analyzing and Managing Business Networks in the Software Industry. 

Ludwig Bertalanffy. 2008. Teoria geral dos sistemas: fundamentos, desenvolvimento e aplicações. Vozes, Petropolis. 

Jan Bosch. 2009. From Software Product Lines to Software Ecosystems. In Proceedings of the 13th International Software Product Line Conference(SPLC ’09). Carnegie Mellon University, USA. event-place: San Francisco, California, USA. 

Jan Bosch. 2011. Software Ecosystems – Implications for Strategy, Business Model and Architecture. 2011 15th International Software Product Line Conference (2011), 351–351. 

Edna Dias Canedo and Giovanni Almeida Santos. 2019. Factors Affecting Software Development Productivity: An empirical study. In Proceedings of the XXXIII Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering. ACM, Salvador Brazil, 307–316. 

Gemma Catolino. [n.d.]. Refactoring Community Smells in the Wild: The Practitioner's Field Manual. ([n. d.]), 10. 

Gemma Catolino, Fabio Palomba, Damian A. Tamburri, Alexander Serebrenik, and Filomena Ferrucci. 2019. Gender Diversity and Women in Software Teams: How Do They Affect Community Smells?. In 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Society (ICSE-SEIS). IEEE, Montreal, QC, Canada, 11–20.

Eleni Constantinou and Tom Mens. 2017. An empirical comparison of developer retention in the RubyGems and npm software ecosystems. Innovations in Systems and Software Engineering 13, 2-3 (Sept. 2017), 101–115.

Rodrigo Pereira dos Santos and Cláudia Maria Lima Werner. 2010. Revisiting the Concept of Components in Software Engineering from a Software Ecosystem Perspective. In Proceedings of the Fourth European Conference on Software Architecture: Companion Volume(ECSA ’10). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 135–142. event-place: Copenhagen, Denmark. 

A. C. S. Dutra and R. Prikladnicki. [n.d.]. Formação de Equipes de Alto Desempenho Para Desenvolvimento de Software. FEES 2014 ([n. d.]), 70. 

Tore Dyba, Torgeir Dingsoyr, and Geir K. Hanssen. 2007. Applying Systematic Reviews to Diverse Study Types: An Experience Report. In First International Symposium on Empirical Software Engineering and Measurement (ESEM 2007). 

Robin J. Ely and David A. Thomas. 2001. Cultural Diversity at Work: The Effects of Diversity Perspectives on Work Group Processes and Outcomes. Administrative Science Quarterly 46, 2 (2001), 229–273. 

David Fonseca, Miguel Ángel Conde, and Francisco J. García-Peñalvo. 2018. Improving the information society skills: Is knowledge accessible for all?Universal Access in the Information Society 17, 2 (June 2018), 229–245. 

Armstrong Foundjem, Ellis Eghan, and Bram Adams. 2021. Onboarding vs. Diversity, Productivity and Quality — Empirical Study of the OpenStack Ecosystem. In 2021 IEEE/ACM 43rd International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). IEEE, Madrid, ES, 1033–1045. 

Nasif Imtiaz, Justin Middleton, Joymallya Chakraborty, Neill Robson, Gina Bai, and Emerson Murphy-Hill. 2019. Investigating the Effects of Gender Bias on GitHub. In 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering (ICSE). IEEE, Montreal, QC, Canada, 700–711.

Susan Jackson and Marian Ruderman. 1995. Diversity in work teams: Research paradigms for a changing workplace.Diversity in work teams (Jan. 1995). ISBN: 1-55798-333-X. 

S. Jansen, A. Finkelstein, and S. Brinkkemper. 2009. A sense of community: A research agenda for software ecosystems. 2009 31st International Conference on Software Engineering - Companion Volume (2009), 187–190. 

Barbara Kitchenham and Stuart Charters. 2007. Guidelines for performing Systematic Literature Reviews in Software Engineering. Technical Report EBSE 2007-001. Keele University and Durham University Joint Report.

Konstantinos Manikas and Klaus Marius Hansen. [n.d.]. Characterizing the Danish Telemedicine Ecosystem: Making Sense of Actor Relationships. ([n. d.]). 

Konstantinos Manikas and Klaus Marius Hansen. 2013. Software ecosystems – A systematic literature review. Journal of Systems and Software 86, 5 (2013). 

Victor de La Paz Richarte Martinez. 2008. Gestão da diversidade e pessoas com deficiência: percepção dos gestores e empregados sobre os impactos da lei de cotas. Mestrado em Administração. Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo.

Joseph McGrath, Jennifer Berdahl, and Holly Arrow. 1995. Traits, expectations, culture, and clout: The dynamics of diversity in work groups. Diversity in work teams: Research paradigms for a changing workplace (Jan. 1995), 17–46. 

Christopher Mendez, Anita Sarma, and Margaret Burnett. 2018. Gender in open source software: what the tools tell. In Proceedings of the 1st International Workshop on Gender Equality in Software Engineering. ACM, Gothenburg Sweden. 

Michele Miranda and Rafael Prikladnicki. 2020. Towards a model for Managing Diversity and Inclusion in Software Development Teams. In Proceedings of the 34th Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering. ACM, Natal Brazil, 325–331. 

Rodrigo Santos and Davi Viana. 2016. Software Ecosystems in the Development of Web, Social Networks and Multimedia Platforms. In Proceedings of the 22nd Brazilian Symposium on Multimedia and the Web(Webmedia ’16). Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 21–22. event-place: Teresina, Piauí State, Brazil. 

Rodrigo Pereira Santos, Davi Viana, and Cristiano Maciel. 2016. Ecossistemas de Software: Uma Visão sobre Fatores Técnicos, Humanos e Organizacionais. Livro dos Tutoriais do XV IHC. 15ed. Porto Alegre: SBC 100 (2016), 70–90. 

Igor Steinmacher, Marco Gerosa, Tayana U. Conte, and David F. Redmiles. 2019. Overcoming Social Barriers When Contributing to Open Source Software Projects. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 28, 1-2 (April 2019), 247–290.

Bogdan Vasilescu. 2014. Human aspects, gamification, and social media in collaborative software engineering. In Companion Proceedings of the 36th International Conference on Software Engineering. ACM, Hyderabad India, 646–649. 

Bogdan Vasilescu, Daryl Posnett, Baishakhi Ray, Mark G.J. van den Brand, Alexander Serebrenik, Premkumar Devanbu, and Vladimir Filkov. 2015. Gender and Tenure Diversity in GitHub Teams. In Proceedings of the 33rd Annual ACM Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, Seoul Republic of Korea, 3789–3798. 

Bogdan Vasilescu, Alexander Serebrenik, and Vladimir Filkov. 2015. A Data Set for Social Diversity Studies of GitHub Teams. In 2015 IEEE/ACM 12th Working Conference on Mining Software Repositories. IEEE, Florence, Italy, 514–517.

Yi Wang and David Redmiles. 2019. Implicit Gender Biases in Professional Software Development: An Empirical Study. In 2019 IEEE/ACM 41st International Conference on Software Engineering: Software Engineering in Society (ICSE-SEIS). IEEE, Montreal, QC, Canada, 1–10.

Rose Mary Wentling and Nilda Palma-Rivas. 2000. Current status of diversity initiatives in selected multinational corporations. Human Resource Development Quarterly 11, 1 (2000), 35–60.
Como Citar

Selecione um Formato
OUTÃO, Juliana Carvalho Silva do; SANTOS, Rodrigo Pereira dos. How does diversity manifest itself in software ecosystems?. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE SISTEMAS DE INFORMAÇÃO (SBSI), 18. , 2022, Curitiba. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2022 .