Encoding Physical Conditioning from Inertial Sensors for Multi-step Heart Rate Estimation


Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) sensors are present in everyday devices such as smartphones and fitness watches. As a result, the array of health-related research and applications that tap onto this data has been growing, but little attention has been devoted to the prediction of an individual’s heart rate (HR) from IMU data, when undergoing a physical activity. Would that be even possible? If so, this could be used to design personalized sets of aerobic exercises, for instance. In this work, we show that it is viable to obtain accurate HR predictions from IMU data using Recurrent Neural Networks, provided only access to HR and IMU data from a short-lived, previously executed activity. We propose a novel method for initializing an RNN’s hidden state vectors, using a specialized network that attempts to extract an embedding of the physical conditioning (PCE) of a subject. We show that using a discriminator in the training phase to help the model learn whether two PCEs belong to the same individual further reduces the prediction error. We evaluate the proposed model when predicting the HR of 23 subjects performing a variety of physical activities from IMU data available in public datasets (PAMAP2, PPG-DaLiA). For comparison, we use as baselines the only model specifically proposed for this task and an adapted state-of-the-art model for Human Activity Recognition (HAR), a closely related task. Our method, PCE-LSTM, yields over 10% lower mean absolute error. We demonstrate empirically that this error reduction is in part due to the use of the PCE. Last, we use the two datasets (PPG-DaLiA, WESAD) to show that PCE-LSTM can also be successfully applied when photoplethysmography (PPG) sensors are available, outperforming the state-of-the-art deep learning baselines by more than 30%.
Palavras-chave: Heart rate estimation, IMU sensors, Photoplethysmography, Neural networks
AGUIAR, Davi Pedrosa de; MURAI, Fabricio. Encoding Physical Conditioning from Inertial Sensors for Multi-step Heart Rate Estimation. In: BRAZILIAN CONFERENCE ON INTELLIGENT SYSTEMS (BRACIS), 10. , 2021, Online. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2021 . ISSN 2643-6264.