An Elastic Optical Network-based Architecture for the 5G Fronthaul
In 5G networks, the traffic demands are expected to increase significantly. To deal with this problem, many research efforts focus on TWDMPON for the fronthaul. However, TWDM-PON suffers from the issue of wasted bandwidth when a demand is smaller than the channel. In order to avoid this inefficiency, we propose an OFDM-PON supported architecture for the Cloud Radio Access Network (C-RAN) topology to implement the technology of elastic optical networks into C-RAN. Experiments show that OFDM-PON allows for improved usage of the bandwidth (between 145% and 218% improvement), similar average wait time for requests (average difference below 7%), and similar request loss (average difference below 2%) in comparison to TWDM.
Aibin, M. and Walkowiak, K. (2014). Dynamic Routing of Anycast and Unicast Traffic in Elastic Optical Networks with Various Modulation Formats—Trade-off between Blocking Probability and Network Cost. In 2014 IEEE 15th International Conference on High Performance Switching and Routing (HPSR), pages 64–69. IEEE.
Cisco (2016). The Zettabyte Era: Trends and Analysis. https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/solutions/collateral/service-provider/visual-networking-index-vni/vni-hyperconnectivity-wp.html. Accessed: 2017-09-21.
Figueiredo, G. B., Wang, X., Meixner, C. C., Tornatore, M., and Mukherjee, B. (2016). Load Balancing and Latency Reduction in Multi-user CoMP over TWDM-VPONs. In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Communications (ICC), pages 1–6. IEEE.
Gerstel, O., Jinno, M., Lord, A., and Yoo, S. B. (2012). Elastic Optical Networking: A New Dawn For The Optical Layer? IEEE Communications Magazine, 50(2).
Iida, D., Kuwano, S., Kani, J.-i., and Terada, J. (2013). Dynamic TWDM-PON for Mobile Radio Access Networks. Optics Express, 21(22):26209–26218.
Musumeci, F., Bellanzon, C., Carapellese, N., Tornatore, M., Pattavina, A., and Gosselin, S. (2016). Optimal BBU Placement for 5G C-RAN Deployment Over WDM Aggregation Networks. Journal of Lightwave Technology, 34(8):1963–1970.
Peng, M., Li, Y., Jiang, J., Li, J., and Wang, C. (2014). Heterogeneous cloud Radio Access Networks: A New Perspective for Enhancing Spectral and Energy Efciencies. IEEE Wireless Communications, 21(6):126–135.
Sawahashi, M., Kishiyama, Y., Morimoto, A., Nishikawa, D., and Tanno, M. (2010). Coordinated Multipoint Transmission/Reception Techniques for LTE-Advanced [Coordinated and Distributed MIMO]. IEEE Wireless Communications, 17(3).
Talebi, S., Alam, F., Katib, I., Khamis, M., Salama, R., and Rouskas, G. N. (2014). Spectrum Management Techniques for Elastic Optical Networks: A Survey. Optical Switching and Networking, 13:34–48.
Tanaka, K. and Agata, A. (2015). Next-generation Optical Access Networks for C-RAN. In Optical Fiber Communication Conference, pages Tu2E–1. Optical Society of America.
Tinini, R. I., Reis, L. C. M., Batista, D. M., Figueiredo, G. B., Tornatore, M., and Mukherjee, B. (2017). Optimal Placement of Virtualized BBU Processing in Hybrid CloudFog RAN over TWDM-PON. In GLOBECOM 2017 2017 IEEE Global Communications Conference, pages 1–6.
Velasco, L., Castro, A., Asensio, A., Ruiz, M., Liu, G., Qin, C., Proietti, R., and Yoo, S. (2017). Meeting the Requirements to Deploy Cloud RAN Over Optical Networks. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 9(3):B22–B32.
Wang, X., Wang, L., Cavdar, C., Tornatore, M., Figueiredo, G. B., Chung, H. S., Lee, H. H., Park, S., and Mukherjee, B. (2016). Handover Reduction in Virtualized Cloud Radio Access Networks Using TWDM-PON Fronthaul. Journal of Optical Communications and Networking, 8(12):B124–B134.
Zhang, J., Ji, Y., Zhang, J., Gu, R., Zhao, Y., Liu, S., Xu, K., Song, M., Li, H., and Wang, X. (2015). Baseband Unit Cloud Interconnection Enabled by Flexible Grid Optical Networks with Software Dened Elasticity. 53:90–98.