Interoperability Types Classifications: A Tertiary Study

  • Kécia Souza Santana Santos UFBA
  • Larissa Barbosa Leoncio Pinheiro UFBA
  • Rita Suzana Pitangueira Maciel UFBA


Interoperability is the ability of heterogeneous systems to interact and exchange information efficiently and effectively through a planned process. Interoperability has several faces and usually, the syntactic interoperability type is pointed out as the most basic one for keeping information systems interoperable. Several other types of interoperability, such as semantics, pragmatics, syntactic, organizational have been addressed as important non-functional requirements for information systems. Still lacking consensus, there are several terms used to characterize interoperability. Thus, can bring confusion and ambiguity in the use of these terms, making it difficult to have a comprehensive view of related or similar interoperability proposals. While some primary studies address specific solutions for interoperability aspects, secondary studies seek to summarize some research directions and practical knowledge. This paper presents a tertiary study performed to investigate the current research state on interoperability, organizing knowledge that has already been defined, about types of interoperability known and the new ones. We conducted a tertiary study to achieve the stated goal based on a set of three research questions. The study identified selected and analyzed 15 secondary studies to answer the formulated research questions. Although twenty-seven different interoperability types were found, a specific subset is the most cited among these secondary studies. Its results can help to identify points that still require further investigation in the interoperability research field.
Palavras-chave: Interoperability, types of interoperability, Tertiary study


Apostolos Ampatzoglou, Stamatia Bibi, Paris Avgeriou, Marijn Verbeek, and Alexander Chatzigeorgiou. 2019. Identifying, categorizing and mitigating threats to validity in software engineering secondary studies. Information and Software Technology 106 (2019), 201–230.

Camlon H Asuncion. 2011. Pragmatic Interoperability in the Enterprise-A Research Agenda.. In CAiSE (Doctoral Consortium). 3–14.

Camlon H Asuncion and Marten J Van Sinderen. 2010. Pragmatic interoperability: A systematic review of published definitions. In IFIP International Conference on Enterprise Architecture, Integration and Interoperability. Springer, 164–175.

Terry Bernstein, Anish B Bhimani, Eugene Schultz, and Carol A Siegel. 1997. Segurança na internet. Rio de janeiro: Campus(1997).

Hayet Brabra, Achraf Mtibaa, Layth Sliman, Walid Gaaloul, and Faiez Gargouri. 2016. Semantic web technologies in cloud computing: a systematic literature review. In 2016 IEEE International Conference on Services Computing (SCC). IEEE, 744–751.

Rebecca Bryant, Annette Dortmund, and Brian Lavoie. 2020. Social Interoperability in Research Support: Cross-Campus Partnerships and the University Research Enterprise. OCLC Research Report.OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc.(2020).

Thomas Burns, John Cosgrove, and Frank Doyle. 2019. A Review of Interoperability Standards for Industry 4.0.Procedia Manufacturing 38 (2019), 646–653.

Fabian Burzlaff, Nils Wilken, Christian Bartelt, and Heiner Stuckenschmidt. 2019. Semantic interoperability methods for smart service systems: A survey. IEEE Transactions on Engineering Management(2019).

David Chen, Guy Doumeingts, and François Vernadat. 2008. Architectures for enterprise integration and interoperability: Past, present and future. Computers in industry 59, 7 (2008), 647–659. 

IEEE Standards Coordinating Committee 1990. IEEE Standard Glossary of Software Engineering Terminology (IEEE Std 610.12-1990). Los Alamitos. CA: IEEE Computer Society 169 (1990).

Michael J DiMario. 2006. System of systems interoperability types and characteristics in joint command and control. In 2006 IEEE/SMC International Conference on System of Systems Engineering. IEEE, 6–pp.

Juliana Costa Fernandes, Valdemar V Graciano Neto, and Rodrigo Pereira dos Santos. 2018. Interoperability in systems-of-information systems: A systematic mapping study. In Proceedings of the 17th Brazilian Symposium on Software Quality. 131–140. 

Edward A Fox and Gary Marchionini. 1998. Toward a worldwide digital library. Commun. ACM 41, 4 (1998), 29–32. 

Rambabu Garlapati and Rajib Biswas. 2012. Interoperability in Healthcare: A focus on the Social Interoperability. 

Göran Goldkuhl. 2008. The challenges of Interoperability in E-government: Towards a conceptual refinement. In Proceedings pre-ICIS 2008 SIG eGovernment Workshop.

Didem Gürdür and Fredrik Asplund. 2018. A systematic review to merge discourses: Interoperability, integration and cyber-physical systems. Journal of Industrial information integration 9 (2018), 14–23.

Didem Gürdür, Fredrik Asplund, and Jad El-khoury. 2016. Measuring tool chain interoperability in Cyber-Physical Systems. In 2016 11th System of Systems Engineering Conference (SoSE). IEEE, 1–4.

Holly AH Handley. 2014. A network model for human interoperability. Human factors 56, 2 (2014), 349–360.

Rashina Hoda, Norsaremah Salleh, John Grundy, and Hui Mien Tee. 2017. Systematic literature reviews in agile software development: A tertiary study. Information and Software Technology 85 (2017), 60–70. 

Kiranbir Kaur, DR Sandeep Sharma, and DR Karanjeet Singh Kahlon. 2017. Interoperability and portability approaches in inter-connected clouds: A review. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR) 50, 4 (2017), 1–40. 

Hak-Lae Kim, John G Breslin, Sung-Kwon Yang, and Hong-Gee Kim. 2008. Social semantic cloud of tag: Semantic model for social tagging. In KES International Symposium on Agent and Multi-Agent Systems: Technologies and Applications. Springer, 83–92. 

Barbara A Kitchenham and Stuart Charters. 2007. Guidelines for performing systematic literature reviews in software engineering technical report. Software Engineering Group, EBSE Technical Report, Keele University and Department of Computer Science University of Durham 2 (2007).

Gabriel da Silva Serapião Leal, Wided Guédria, and Hervé Panetto. 2019. Interoperability assessment: A systematic literature review. Computers in Industry 106 (2019), 111–132.

Sachiko Lim and Rahim Rahmani. 2020. Toward Semantic IoT Load Inference Attention Management for Facilitating Healthcare and Public Health Collaboration: A Survey. Procedia Computer Science 177 (2020), 371–378.

Rita Suzana P Maciel, José Maria N David, Daniela Barreiro Claro, and Regina Braga. 2017. Full interoperability: Challenges and opportunities for future information systems. Grand Research Challenges in Information Systems in Brazil 2016 2026 (2017), 107–116.

V Medina, R Valdes, J Azpiroz, and E Sacristan. 2007. Title of paper if known [J]. Management Science 25, 4 (2007), 240–254.

Rebeca Campos Motta, Káthia Marçal De Oliveira, and Guilherme Horta Travassos. 2017. Rethinking interoperability in contemporary software systems. In 2017 IEEE/ACM Joint 5th International Workshop on Software Engineering for Systems-of-Systems and 11th Workshop on Distributed Software Development, Software Ecosystems and Systems-of-Systems (JSOS). IEEE, 9–15. 

Rebeca C Motta, Káthia M de Oliveira, and Guilherme H Travassos. 2019. A conceptual perspective on interoperability in context-aware software systems. Information and Software Technology 114 (2019), 231–257.

Marina Figueiredo Muller, Filipe Esmanioto, Natan Huber, Eduardo Rocha Loures, and Osiris Canciglieri Junior. 2019. A systematic literature review of interoperability in the green Building Information Modeling lifecycle. Journal of cleaner production 223 (2019), 397–412.

Matheus HS Muniz, José Maria N David, Regina Braga, Fernanda Campos, and Victor Stroele. 2019. Pragmatic interoperability in IoT: a systematic mapping study. In Proceedings of the 25th Brazillian Symposium on Multimedia and the Web. 73–80. 

Florinel Constantin Negulescu 2011. Interoperability in strategic combined Joint special operations. Defense Resources Management in the 21st Century 6, 6 (2011), 136–140.

Frâncila Weidt Neiva, José Maria N David, Regina Braga, and Fernanda Campos. 2016. Towards pragmatic interoperability to support collaboration: A systematic review and mapping of the literature. Information and Software Technology 72 (2016), 137–150. 

Jacob Nilsson and Fredrik Sandin. 2018. Semantic interoperability in industry 4.0: Survey of recent developments and outlook. In 2018 IEEE 16th International Conference on Industrial Informatics (INDIN). IEEE, 127–132.

Mahda Noura, Mohammed Atiquzzaman, and Martin Gaedke. 2019. Interoperability in internet of things: Taxonomies and open challenges. Mobile Networks and Applications 24, 3 (2019), 796–809. 

Elivaldo Lozer Fracalossi Ribeiro, Erasmo Leite Monteiro, Daniela Barreiro Claro, and Rita Suzana Pitangueira Maciel. 2019. A Conceptual Framework for Pragmatic Interoperability. In Proceedings of the XV Brazilian Symposium on Information Systems. 1–8. 

Andreas Tolk. 2003. Beyond technical interoperability-introducing a reference model for measures of merit for coalition interoperability. Technical Report. Old Dominion Univ Norfolk VA.

Andreas Tolk, Saikou Y Diallo, and Charles D Turnitsa. 2007. Applying the levels of conceptual interoperability model in support of integratability, interoperability, and composability for system-of-systems engineering. Journal of Systems, Cybernetics, and Informatics 5, 5(2007).

Andreas Tolk, Charles D Turnitsa, and Saikou Y Diallo. 2006. Ontological implications of the levels of conceptual interoperability model. (2006).

Pedro Henrique Dias Valle, Lina Garcés, and Elisa Yumi Nakagawa. 2019. A Typology of Architectural Strategies for Interoperability. In Proceedings of the XIII Brazilian Symposium on Software Components, Architectures, and Reuse. 3–12. 

June M Verner, O Pearl Brereton, Barbara A Kitchenham, Mark Turner, and Mahmood Niazi. 2012. Systematic literature reviews in global software development: a tertiary study. IET Conference Proceedings(2012). 

Maria A Wimmer, Rositsa Boneva, and Debora Di Giacomo. 2018. Interoperability governance: a definition and insights from case studies in Europe. In Proceedings of the 19th Annual International Conference on Digital Government Research: Governance in the Data Age. 1–11. 
Como Citar

Selecione um Formato
SANTANA SANTOS, Kécia Souza; LEONCIO PINHEIRO, Larissa Barbosa; MACIEL, Rita Suzana Pitangueira. Interoperability Types Classifications: A Tertiary Study. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE SISTEMAS DE INFORMAÇÃO (SBSI), 17. , 2021, Uberlândia. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2021 .