Design recommendations under the Self-determination theory: Analyzing some systems and their implication to self-esteem
Keywords:Self-esteem, Self-determination theory, Design recommendations, Meta-analysis
Self-esteem is a concept that refers to a person's self-evaluation that can be related to the person’s success in interacting with other people and the world around them. The self-esteem of a person is built over a lifetime, influenced by experiences, social interactions, and sense-making about the world based on self-perception of life. As people, technology and society are increasingly connected, technology may also influence its user’s self-esteem. In this paper, we investigate the subject through the lens of the Self-determination Theory, by analyzing literature work addressing the relation between technology design and self-esteem impact. Based on a meta-analysis of 21 papers previously selected from literature, we present, as result, 18 design recommendations to digital and physical artefact solutions; these recommendations are classified according to their main content, purpose, and aspect (personal, social, and technical). We could verify the recommendations completeness and analyze how they encompass the capacity of influencing self-esteem in four systems raised from literature and in one system developed considering these recommendations. With results of this work, we aim at providing technical support to guide designers in improving their system towards users’ motivation and self-esteem, favoring a designer’s reflection about how the systems they develop may affect the user’s life.
Alaoui, M., & Lewkowicz, M. (2012). Struggling Against Social Isolation of the Elderly—The Design of SmartTV Applications. In J. Dugdale, C. Masclet, M. A. Grasso, J.-F. Boujut, & P. Hassanaly (Orgs.), From Re-search to Practice in the Design of Cooperative Sys-tems: Results and Open Challenges (p. 261–275). London: Springer London. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-4471-4093-1_18
Apaolaza, V., Hartmann, P., Medina, E., Barrutia, J. M., & Echebarria, C. (2013). The relationship between so-cializing on the Spanish online networking site Tuenti and teenagers’ subjective wellbeing: The roles of self-esteem and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1282–1289.
Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2015). Sistemas sócio-enativos: Investigando novas dimensões no design da interação mediada por tecnologias de informação e comunica-ção. FAPESP Thematic Project (2015/165280).
Baumeister, R. F., Twenge, J. M., & Nuss, C. K. (2002). Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: An-ticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought. Jour-nal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(4), 817–827. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-35184.108.40.2067
Birk, M. V., Mandryk, R. L., Miller, M. K., & Gerling, K. M. (2015). How self-esteem shapes our interactions with play technologies. Proceedings of the 2015 An-nual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, 35–45.
Bittencourt, I. I., Baranauskas, M. C., Pereira, R., Derme-val, D., Isotani, S., & Jaques, P. (2016). A systematic review on multi-device inclusive environments. Uni-versal Access in the Information Society, 15(4), 737–772.
Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of computer-mediated Communication, 13(1), 210–230.
CERNEV, F. K., & Hentschke, L. (2013). A teoria da autodeterminação e as influências das necessidades psicológicas básicas na motivação dos professores de música. Revista da ABEM, 20(29).
Chen, W., & Lee, K.-H. (2013). Sharing, liking, comment-ing, and distressed? The pathway between Facebook interaction and psychological distress. Cyberpsychol-ogy, behavior, and social networking, 16(10), 728–734.
Colombetti, G. (2017). Enactive affectivity, extended. Topoi, 36(3), 445–455.
Compañ-Rosique, P., Molina-Carmona, R., Gallego-Durán, F., Satorre-Cuerda, R., Villagrá-Arnedo, C., & Llorens-Largo, F. (2019). A guide for making video games accessible to users with cerebral palsy. Univer-sal Access in the Information Society, 18(3), 565–581.
Coopersmith, S. (1965). The antecedents of self-esteem. Princeton.
Damásio, A. (2005). Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. Penguin Books.
Damásio, A. (2012). O erro de Descartes: Emoção, ra-zão e o cérebro humano. Editora Companhia das Letras.
Ellison, C. G., Gay, D. A., & Glass, T. A. (1989). Does religious commitment contribute to individual life sat-isfaction? Social forces, 68(1), 100–123.
Erthal, T. C. S. (1991). Terapia vivencial: Uma aborda-gem existencial em psicoterapia. In Terapia vivencial: Uma abordagem existencial em psicoterapia (p. 183–183).
Faelens, L., Hoorelbeke, K., Fried, E., De Raedt, R., & Koster, E. H. (2019). Negative influences of Facebook use through the lens of network analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 96, 13–22.
Gallagher, S. (2013). A pattern theory of self. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 443.
Gerling, K. M., Miller, M., Mandryk, R. L., Birk, M. V., & Smeddinck, J. D. (2014). Effects of balancing for phys-ical abilities on player performance, experience and self-esteem in exergames. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2201–2210.
Guilhardi, H. J. (2002). Auto-estima, autoconfiança e responsabilidade. Comportamento humano: tudo (ou quase tudo) que você precisa saber para viver melhor, 63–98.
Gunasekare, U. L. T. P. (2016). Self Determination Theo-ry (SDT): A review on SDT as a Complementary Theo-ry of Motivation. Kelaniya Journal of Human Re-source Management, 11(1), 58. https://doi.org/10.4038/kjhrm.v11i1.28
Hatchel, T., Negriff, S., & Subrahmanyam, K. (2018). The relation between media multitasking, intensity of use, and well-being in a sample of ethnically diverse emerging adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 115–123.
Heatherton, T. F., & Wyland, C. L. (2003). Assessing self-esteem.
Hutz, C. S., & Zanon, C. (2011). Revisão da apadtação, validação e normatização da escala de autoestima de Rosenberg. Avaliacao Psicológica: Interamerican Journal of Psychological Assessment, 10(1), 41–49.
Jang, W. E., Bucy, E. P., & Cho, J. (2018). Self-esteem moderates the influence of self-presentation style on Facebook users’ sense of subjective well-being. Com-puters in Human Behavior, 85, 190–199.
Jraidi, I., & Frasson, C. (2010). Subliminally enhancing self-esteem: Impact on learner performance and affec-tive state. International Conference on Intelligent Tu-toring Systems, 11–20. Springer.
Keay-Bright, W., & Howarth, I. (2012). Is simplicity the key to engagement for children on the autism spec-trum? Personal and ubiquitous computing, 16(2), 129–141.
Kersten, G. E., Wu, S., & Oertel, C. (2011). Extrinsic or Intrinsic Motivation of E-Negotiation Experiments’ Participants. 2011 44th Hawaii International Confe-rence on System Sciences, 1–10. IEEE.
Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the cop-ing process. New York, NY, US: McGraw-Hill.
le Roux, P., & Loock, M. (2015). The impact and oppor-tunities of e-tutoring in a challenged socio-economic environment. 2015 International Conference on Com-puting, Communication and Security (ICCCS), 1–6. IEEE.
Leal, E. A., Miranda, G. J., & Carmo, C. R. S. (2013). Teoria da autodeterminação: Uma análise da motiva-ção dos estudantes do curso de ciências contábeis. Re-vista Contabilidade & Finanças, 24(62), 162–173.
Leary, M. R. (1990). Responses to social exclusion: So-cial anxiety, jealousy, loneliness, depression, and low self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psycholo-gy, 9(2), 221–229.
Leary, M. R. (2012). Sociometer Theory. In P. Van Lange, A. Kruglanski, & E. Higgins, Handbook of The-ories of Social Psychology (p. 141–159). 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United King-dom: SAGE Publications Ltd. https://doi.org/10.4135/9781446249222.n33
Lee, E.-J., & Jang, J. (2010a). Profiling good Samaritans in online knowledge forums: Effects of affiliative ten-dency, self-esteem, and public individuation on knowledge sharing. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1336–1344.
Lee, E.-J., & Jang, J. (2010b). Profiling good Samaritans in online knowledge forums: Effects of affiliative ten-dency, self-esteem, and public individuation on knowledge sharing. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1336–1344.
Lopez, S. J., & Snyder, C. R. (2003). Positive psychologi-cal assessment: A handbook of models and measures. American Psychological Association.
Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (2012). Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living (Vol. 42). Springer Science & Business Media.
Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & others. (2010). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Int J Surg, 8(5), 336–341.
Muriana, L. M., & Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2021a). Affect-ing User’s Self-esteem: Analysis under the Self-determination Theory Perspective and Design Recom-mendations. Proceedings of the XX Brazilian Symposi-um on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1–12. Virtual Event Brazil: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/3472301.3484331
Muriana, L. M., & Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2021b). Tech-nological Influence on Self-esteem: Towards a Re-search Agenda Through a Systematic Literature Re-view. In M. Kurosu (Org.), Human-Computer Interac-tion. Theory, Methods and Tools (p. 451–471). Cham: Springer International Publishing. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-78462-1_35
Muriana, L. M., Silva, J. V. d, Santos, A. C. dos, & Bara-nauskas, M. C. C. (2019). Affective state, self-esteem and technology: An exploratory study with children in hospital context. Proceedings of the 18th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1–11.
Nie, J., & Sundar, S. S. (2013). Who would pay for Face-book? Self esteem as a predictor of user behavior, identity construction and valuation of virtual posses-sions. IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interac-tion, 726–743. Springer.
Ortony, A., Norman, D. A., & Revelle, W. (2005). Affect and Proto-Affect in Effective Functioning.
Paay, J., Nielsen, H., Larsen, H., & Kjeldskov, J. (2018). Happy bits: Interactive technologies helping young adults with low self-esteem. Proceedings of the 10th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 584–596. Oslo Norway: ACM. https://doi.org/10.1145/3240167.3240180
Pai, P., & Arnott, D. C. (2013). User adoption of social networking sites: Eliciting uses and gratifications through a means–end approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1039–1053.
Park, J. (2018). Emotional reactions to the 3D virtual body and future willingness: The effects of self-esteem and social physique anxiety. Virtual Reality, 22(1), 1–11.
Pereira Santos, C., Hutchinson, K., Khan, V.-J., & Mar-kopoulos, P. (2017). Measuring self-esteem with games. Proceedings of the 22nd International Confer-ence on Intelligent User Interfaces, 95–105.
Piccolo, L. S. G., & Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2012). Basis and prospects of motivation informing design: Re-quirements for situated eco-feedback technology. Pro-ceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 137–146.
Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Arndt, J., & Schimel, J. (2004). Why Do People Need Self-Esteem? A Theoretical and Empirical Review. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 435–468. https://doi.org/10.1037/0033-2909.130.3.435
Robbins, S. P. (2009). Comportamento organizacional. São Paulo: Pearson Prentice Hall.
Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, so-cial development, and well-being. American psycholo-gist, 55(1), 68.
Schneider, F. M., Zwillich, B., Bindl, M. J., Hopp, F. R., Reich, S., & Vorderer, P. (2017). Social media ostra-cism: The effects of being excluded online. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 385–393. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chb.2017.03.052
Schneider, F. M., Zwillich, B., Bindl, M. J., Hopp, F. R., Reich, S., Vorderer, P., … Lewkowicz, M. (20172012). Struggling against social isolation of the elderly—The design of SmartTV applications. From research to practice in the design of cooperative systems: Results and open challenges, 73, 261–275.
Schrammel, A., Hlavacs, H., Sprung, M., Müller, I., Mer-sits, M., Eicher, C., & Schmitz, N. (2014). Mind Book–a social network trainer for children with depression. International Conference on Games and Learning Al-liance, 152–162. Springer.
Schultheisz, T. S. D. V., & Aprile, M. R. (2013). Autoes-tima, conceitos correlatos e avaliação. Revista Equilí-brio Corporal e Saúde, 5(1).
Scissors, L., Burke, M., & Wengrovitz, S. (2016). What’s in a Like? Attitudes and behaviors around receiving Likes on Facebook. Proceedings of the 19th acm con-ference on computer-supported cooperative work & social computing, 1501–1510.
Shank, D. B. (2014). Technology and emotions. In Hand-book of the Sociology of Emotions: Volume II (p. 511–528). Springer.
Srivastava, S., & Beer, J. S. (2005). How self-evaluations relate to being liked by others: Integrating sociometer and attachment perspectives. Journal of personality and social psychology, 89(6), 966.
Thieme, A., Wallace, J., Meyer, T. D., & Olivier, P. (2015). Designing for mental wellbeing: Towards a more holistic approach in the treatment and prevention of mental illness. Proceedings of the 2015 British HCI Conference, 1–10.
Thompson, E. (2010). Mind in life: Biology, phenome-nology, and the sciences of mind (1. Harvard Univ. Press paperback ed). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press.
Thüring, M., & Mahlke, S. (2007). Usability, aesthetics and emotions in human–technology interaction. Inter-national journal of psychology, 42(4), 253–264.
Valkenburg, P. M., Koutamanis, M., & Vossen, H. G. (2017). The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between adolescents’ use of social network sites and their social self-esteem. Computers in human behav-ior, 76, 35–41.
Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). The PANAS-X: Manu-al for the positive and negative affect schedule-expanded form.
Wohn, D. Y., & Lampe, C. (2018). Psychological wellbe-ing as an explanation of user engagement in the lifecy-cle of online community participation. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Conference on Supporting Groupwork, 184–195.
Zell, A. L., & Moeller, L. (2018). Are you happy for me… on Facebook? The potential importance of “likes” and comments. Computers in Human Behavior, 78, 26–33.
How to Cite
Copyright (c) 2022 Luã Marcelo Muriana, Maria Cecília Calani Baranauskas
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
JIS is free of charges for both authors and readers, and all papers published by JIS follow the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0) license.