Design recommendations under the Self-determination theory: Analyzing some systems and their implication to self-esteem




Self-esteem, Self-determination theory, Design recommendations, Meta-analysis


Self-esteem is a concept that refers to a person's self-evaluation that can be related to the person’s success in interacting with other people and the world around them. The self-esteem of a person is built over a lifetime, influenced by experiences, social interactions, and sense-making about the world based on self-perception of life. As people, technology and society are increasingly connected, technology may also influence its user’s self-esteem. In this paper, we investigate the subject through the lens of the Self-determination Theory, by analyzing literature work addressing the relation between technology design and self-esteem impact. Based on a meta-analysis of 21 papers previously selected from literature, we present, as result, 18 design recommendations to digital and physical artefact solutions; these recommendations are classified according to their main content, purpose, and aspect (personal, social, and technical). We could verify the recommendations completeness and analyze how they encompass the capacity of influencing self-esteem in four systems raised from literature and in one system developed considering these recommendations. With results of this work, we aim at providing technical support to guide designers in improving their system towards users’ motivation and self-esteem, favoring a designer’s reflection about how the systems they develop may affect the user’s life.


Download data is not yet available.


Alaoui, M., & Lewkowicz, M. (2012). Struggling Against Social Isolation of the Elderly—The Design of SmartTV Applications. In J. Dugdale, C. Masclet, M. A. Grasso, J.-F. Boujut, & P. Hassanaly (Orgs.), From Research to Practice in the Design of Cooperative Systems: Results and Open Challenges (p. 261–275). London: Springer London.

Apaolaza, V., Hartmann, P., Medina, E., Barrutia, J. M., & Echebarria, C. (2013). The relationship between socializing on the Spanish online networking site Tuenti and teenagers’ subjective wellbeing: The roles of self-esteem and loneliness. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(4), 1282–1289.

Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2015). Sistemas sócio-enativos: Investigando novas dimensões no design da interação mediada por tecnologias de informação e comunicação. FAPESP Thematic Project (2015/165280).

Baumeister, R. F., Twenge, J. M., & Nuss, C. K. (2002). Effects of social exclusion on cognitive processes: Anticipated aloneness reduces intelligent thought. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83(4), 817–827.

Birk, M. V., Mandryk, R. L., Miller, M. K., & Gerling, K. M. (2015). How self-esteem shapes our interactions with play technologies. Proceedings of the 2015 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play, 35–45.

Bittencourt, I. I., Baranauskas, M. C., Pereira, R., Dermeval, D., Isotani, S., & Jaques, P. (2016). A systematic review on multi-device inclusive environments. Universal Access in the Information Society, 15(4), 737–772.

Boyd, D. M., & Ellison, N. B. (2007). Social network sites: Definition, history, and scholarship. Journal of computer-mediated Communication, 13(1), 210–230.

CERNEV, F. K., & Hentschke, L. (2013). A teoria da autodeterminação e as influências das necessidades psicológicas básicas na motivação dos professores de música. Revista da ABEM, 20(29).

Chen, W., & Lee, K.-H. (2013). Sharing, liking, commenting, and distressed? The pathway between Facebook interaction and psychological distress. Cyberpsychology, behavior, and social networking, 16(10), 728–734.

Colombetti, G. (2017). Enactive affectivity, extended. Topoi, 36(3), 445–455.

Compañ-Rosique, P., Molina-Carmona, R., Gallego-Durán, F., Satorre-Cuerda, R., Villagrá-Arnedo, C., & Llorens-Largo, F. (2019). A guide for making video games accessible to users with cerebral palsy. Universal Access in the Information Society, 18(3), 565–581.

Coopersmith, S. (1965). The antecedents of self-esteem. Princeton.

Damásio, A. (2005). Descartes’ Error: Emotion, Reason, and the Human Brain. Penguin Books.

Damásio, A. (2012). O erro de Descartes: Emoção, razão e o cérebro humano. Editora Companhia das Letras.

Ellison, C. G., Gay, D. A., & Glass, T. A. (1989). Does religious commitment contribute to individual life satisfaction? Social forces, 68(1), 100–123.

Erthal, T. C. S. (1991). Terapia vivencial: Uma abordagem existencial em psicoterapia. In Terapia vivencial: Uma abordagem existencial em psicoterapia (p. 183–183).

Faelens, L., Hoorelbeke, K., Fried, E., De Raedt, R., & Koster, E. H. (2019). Negative influences of Facebook use through the lens of network analysis. Computers in Human Behavior, 96, 13–22.

Gallagher, S. (2013). A pattern theory of self. Frontiers in human neuroscience, 7, 443.

Gerling, K. M., Miller, M., Mandryk, R. L., Birk, M. V., & Smeddinck, J. D. (2014). Effects of balancing for physical abilities on player performance, experience and self-esteem in exergames. Proceedings of the SIGCHI Conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 2201–2210.

Guilhardi, H. J. (2002). Auto-estima, autoconfiança e responsabilidade. Comportamento humano: tudo (ou quase tudo) que você precisa saber para viver melhor, 63–98.

Gunasekare, U. L. T. P. (2016). Self Determination Theory (SDT): A review on SDT as a Complementary Theory of Motivation. Kelaniya Journal of Human Resource Management, 11(1), 58.

Hatchel, T., Negriff, S., & Subrahmanyam, K. (2018). The relation between media multitasking, intensity of use, and well-being in a sample of ethnically diverse emerging adults. Computers in Human Behavior, 81, 115–123.

Heatherton, T. F., & Wyland, C. L. (2003). Assessing self-esteem.

Hutz, C. S., & Zanon, C. (2011). Revisão da apadtação, validação e normatização da escala de autoestima de Rosenberg. Avaliacao Psicológica: Interamerican Journal of Psychological Assessment, 10(1), 41–49.

Jang, W. E., Bucy, E. P., & Cho, J. (2018). Self-esteem moderates the influence of self-presentation style on Facebook users’ sense of subjective well-being. Computers in Human Behavior, 85, 190–199.

Jraidi, I., & Frasson, C. (2010). Subliminally enhancing self-esteem: Impact on learner performance and affective state. International Conference on Intelligent Tutoring Systems, 11–20. Springer.

Keay-Bright, W., & Howarth, I. (2012). Is simplicity the key to engagement for children on the autism spectrum? Personal and ubiquitous computing, 16(2), 129–141.

Kersten, G. E., Wu, S., & Oertel, C. (2011). Extrinsic or Intrinsic Motivation of E-Negotiation Experiments’ Participants. 2011 44th Hawaii International Conference on System Sciences, 1–10. IEEE.

Lazarus, R. S. (1966). Psychological stress and the coping process. New York, NY, US: McGraw-Hill.

le Roux, P., & Loock, M. (2015). The impact and opportunities of e-tutoring in a challenged socio-economic environment. 2015 International Conference on Computing, Communication and Security (ICCCS), 1–6. IEEE.

Leal, E. A., Miranda, G. J., & Carmo, C. R. S. (2013). Teoria da autodeterminação: Uma análise da motivação dos estudantes do curso de ciências contábeis. Revista Contabilidade & Finanças, 24(62), 162–173.

Leary, M. R. (1990). Responses to social exclusion: Social anxiety, jealousy, loneliness, depression, and low self-esteem. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 9(2), 221–229.

Leary, M. R. (2012). Sociometer Theory. In P. Van Lange, A. Kruglanski, & E. Higgins, Handbook of Theories of Social Psychology (p. 141–159). 1 Oliver’s Yard, 55 City Road, London EC1Y 1SP United Kingdom: SAGE Publications Ltd.

Lee, E.-J., & Jang, J. (2010a). Profiling good Samaritans in online knowledge forums: Effects of affiliative tendency, self-esteem, and public individuation on knowledge sharing. Computers in Human Behavior, 26(6), 1336–1344.

Lopez, S. J., & Snyder, C. R. (2003). Positive psychological assessment: A handbook of models and measures. American Psychological Association.

Maturana, H. R., & Varela, F. J. (2012). Autopoiesis and cognition: The realization of the living (Vol. 42). Springer Science & Business Media.

Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D. G., & others. (2010). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. Int J Surg, 8(5), 336–341.

Muriana, L. M., & Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2021a). Affecting User’s Self-esteem: Analysis under the Self-determination Theory Perspective and Design Recommendations. Proceedings of the XX Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1–12. Virtual Event Brazil: ACM.

Muriana, L. M., & Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2021b). Technological Influence on Self-esteem: Towards a Research Agenda Through a Systematic Literature Review. In M. Kurosu (Org.), Human-Computer Interaction. Theory, Methods and Tools (p. 451–471). Cham: Springer International Publishing.

Muriana, L. M., Silva, J. V. d, Santos, A. C. dos, & Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2019). Affective state, self-esteem and technology: An exploratory study with children in hospital context. Proceedings of the 18th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 1–11.

Nie, J., & Sundar, S. S. (2013). Who would pay for Facebook? Self esteem as a predictor of user behavior, identity construction and valuation of virtual possessions. IFIP Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 726–743. Springer.

Ortony, A., Norman, D. A., & Revelle, W. (2005). Affect and Proto-Affect in Effective Functioning.

Paay, J., Nielsen, H., Larsen, H., & Kjeldskov, J. (2018). Happy bits: Interactive technologies helping young adults with low self-esteem. Proceedings of the 10th Nordic Conference on Human-Computer Interaction, 584–596. Oslo Norway: ACM.

Pai, P., & Arnott, D. C. (2013). User adoption of social networking sites: Eliciting uses and gratifications through a means–end approach. Computers in Human Behavior, 29(3), 1039–1053.

Park, J. (2018). Emotional reactions to the 3D virtual body and future willingness: The effects of self-esteem and social physique anxiety. Virtual Reality, 22(1), 1–11.

Pereira Santos, C., Hutchinson, K., Khan, V.-J., & Markopoulos, P. (2017). Measuring self-esteem with games. Proceedings of the 22nd International Conference on Intelligent User Interfaces, 95–105.

Piccolo, L. S. G., & Baranauskas, M. C. C. (2012). Basis and prospects of motivation informing design: Requirements for situated eco-feedback technology. Proceedings of the 11th Brazilian Symposium on Human Factors in Computing Systems, 137–146.

Pyszczynski, T., Greenberg, J., Solomon, S., Arndt, J., & Schimel, J. (2004). Why Do People Need Self-Esteem? A Theoretical and Empirical Review. Psychological Bulletin, 130(3), 435–468.

Robbins, S. P. (2009). Comportamento organizacional. São Paulo: Pearson Prentice Hall.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. American psycholo-gist, 55(1), 68.

Schneider, F. M., Zwillich, B., Bindl, M. J., Hopp, F. R., Reich, S., & Vorderer, P. (2017). Social media ostracism: The effects of being excluded online. Computers in Human Behavior, 73, 385–393.

Schneider, F. M., Zwillich, B., Bindl, M. J., Hopp, F. R., Reich, S., Vorderer, P., … Lewkowicz, M. (20172012). Struggling against social isolation of the elderly—The design of SmartTV applications. From research to practice in the design of cooperative systems: Results and open challenges, 73, 261–275.

Schrammel, A., Hlavacs, H., Sprung, M., Müller, I., Mer-sits, M., Eicher, C., & Schmitz, N. (2014). Mind Book–a social network trainer for children with depression. International Conference on Games and Learning Alliance, 152–162. Springer.

Schultheisz, T. S. D. V., & Aprile, M. R. (2013). Autoestima, conceitos correlatos e avaliação. Revista Equilíbrio Corporal e Saúde, 5(1).

Scissors, L., Burke, M., & Wengrovitz, S. (2016). What’s in a Like? Attitudes and behaviors around receiving Likes on Facebook. Proceedings of the 19th acm conference on computer-supported cooperative work & social computing, 1501–1510.

Shank, D. B. (2014). Technology and emotions. In Hand-book of the Sociology of Emotions: Volume II (p. 511–528). Springer.

Srivastava, S., & Beer, J. S. (2005). How self-evaluations relate to being liked by others: Integrating sociometer and attachment perspectives. Journal of personality and social psychology, 89(6), 966.

Thieme, A., Wallace, J., Meyer, T. D., & Olivier, P. (2015). Designing for mental wellbeing: Towards a more holistic approach in the treatment and prevention of mental illness. Proceedings of the 2015 British HCI Conference, 1–10.

Thompson, E. (2010). Mind in life: Biology, phenomenology, and the sciences of mind (1. Harvard Univ. Press paperback ed). Cambridge, Mass.: Belknap Press of Harvard Univ. Press.

Thüring, M., & Mahlke, S. (2007). Usability, aesthetics and emotions in human–technology interaction. International journal of psychology, 42(4), 253–264.

Valkenburg, P. M., Koutamanis, M., & Vossen, H. G. (2017). The concurrent and longitudinal relationships between adolescents’ use of social network sites and their social self-esteem. Computers in human behavior, 76, 35–41.

Watson, D., & Clark, L. A. (1999). The PANAS-X: Manual for the positive and negative affect schedule-expanded form.

Wohn, D. Y., & Lampe, C. (2018). Psychological wellbeing as an explanation of user engagement in the lifecycle of online community participation. Proceedings of the 2018 ACM Conference on Supporting Groupwork, 184–195.

Zell, A. L., & Moeller, L. (2018). Are you happy for me… on Facebook? The potential importance of “likes” and comments. Computers in Human Behavior, 78, 26–33.




How to Cite

MURIANA, L. M.; BARANAUSKAS, M. C. C. Design recommendations under the Self-determination theory: Analyzing some systems and their implication to self-esteem: . Journal on Interactive Systems, Porto Alegre, RS, v. 13, n. 1, p. 87–104, 2022. DOI: 10.5753/jis.2022.2540. Disponível em: Acesso em: 24 apr. 2024.



Regular Paper