Usability Engineering of a Radiological Workstation for Mobile Devices: An Experience Report

  • Pedro Costa UFSC
  • Aldo von Wangenheim UFSC
  • Christiane von Wangenheim UFSC
  • Andrei Inácio UFSC
  • Douglas de Macedo UFSC


Medical imaging is commonly used to diagnose many emergent conditions as well as plan treatments. Digital images can be visualized on almost any computing device that has a screen. These days most devices used to visualize digital images are still desktops. Despite that, the world that surrounds us is evolving to a more mobile environment, therefore, mobile devices are increasingly being incorporated onto Picture Archiving and Communication Systems (PACS). In this paper we describe the usability engineering of a new medical image viewer for iPads as a Teleradiology tool for evaluating CTs, X-Rays, Ultrasounds, etc. First we gathered requirements, after we created a series of prototypes and finally the development of the actual application. The experience resulted in insights into how to develop an appropriate viewer for the specific target end user group. Our results suggest that emergency conditions commonly encountered on CT and MRI can be diagnosed using tablet computers with good agreement with dedicated PACS workstations, accordingly to ACR (American College of Radiology). Shortcomings in application design should be addressed f the potential of tablet computers for mobile Teleradiology is to be fully realized.


Choi, HJ, Lee, JH, and Kang, BS. Remote CT reading using an ultramobile PC and web-based remote viewing over a wireless network. J Telemed Telecare, 1, 18 (Jan 2012), 26-31.

Kim, DK, Kim, EY, Yang, KH, Lee, CK, and Yoo, SK. A mobile teleradiology imaging system with JPEG2000 for an emergency care. J Digit Imaging, 4, 24 (Aug 2011), 709–718.

John, S, Poh, AC, Lim, TC, Chan, EH, and Chong, R le. The iPad tablet computer for mobile on-call radiology diagnosis? Auditing discrepancy in CT and MRI reporting. J Digit Imaging, 5, 25 (Oct 2012), 628-634.

Avitzur, O. In Practice: How Neurologists are Using the Newest Tablets — In and Out of the Clinic. Neurology Today, 10, 24 (Dec 2010), 22-24.

Weiss, FE, Jeudy, J, and Siegel, EL. TB or not TB? Answering an age old question using a modern device: The iPad. ( 2010), RSNA.

Choudhri, AF, Carr, TM, Ho, CP, Stone, JR, Gay, SB, and Lambert, DL. Handheld device review of abdominal CT for the evaluation of acute appendicitis. J Digit Imaging, 25, 4 (Aug 2012), 492-6.

Wasserman, A I. Software Engineering Issues for Mobile Application Development. (Santa Clara 2010), Proceedings of Workshop on Mobile Software Engineering, 397-400.

Chen, Chufeng, Abdelnour-Nocera, Jose, Wells, Stephen, and Pan, Nora. Usability Practice in Medical Imaging Application Development. Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 5889 (2009), 405-415.

Drnasin, Ivan and Grgic, Mislav. "The use of mobile phones in radiology," ELMAR, 2010 PROCEEDINGS, Zadar, 2010, pp. 17-21.

Cannella, V.; Orazio, G.; Pirrone, R.; Vitabile, S. GUI Usability in Medical Imaging. CISIS 2009: 778-782

ISO. International Organization for Standardization. ISO 9241 Requisitos Ergonômicos para Trabalho de Escritórios com Computadores Parte 11 – Orientações sobre Usabilidade, 2002.

Chan,. Usability evaluation of order sets in a computerized provider order entry system. BMJ Qual Saf. v. 20, n. 11, p. 932-40, 2011.

Yen, P..Y. Health Information Tecnology Usability Evaluation: Methods, Models and Measures. Ann Arbor: ProQuest, UMI Dissertation Publishing, 162 p., 2011.

Siau, K. Mobile communications and mobile services. International Journal of Mobile Communications. v. 1, n. 1-2, p. 3-14, 2004.

STT. Disponível em: Acessado em: 02 mar. 2016.

Nielsen, Jakob. "Enhancing the explanatory power of usability heuristics."Proceedings of the SIGCHI conference on Human Factors in Computing Systems. ACM, 1994.
COSTA, Pedro; VON WANGENHEIM, Aldo; VON WANGENHEIM, Christiane; INÁCIO, Andrei; DE MACEDO, Douglas. Usability Engineering of a Radiological Workstation for Mobile Devices: An Experience Report. In: SIMPÓSIO BRASILEIRO DE COMPUTAÇÃO APLICADA À SAÚDE (SBCAS), 16. , 2016, Porto Alegre. Anais [...]. Porto Alegre: Sociedade Brasileira de Computação, 2016 . p. 2471-2480. ISSN 2763-8952. DOI: