Business Model for Brazilian Indie Game Studios in Game Software Ecosystems
Context: The Software Ecosystem (SECO) strategy dominates the digital game industry. The leading game companies adopted SECO dynamics, forcing external actors (e.g., game studios) to adapt to a highly competitive scenario. Objective: Considering the significant growth of the Brazilian digital games industry in the last years, this study aims to present and evaluate a business model proposed for the independent Brazilian game studios immersed in the Game SECO (GSECO) context. Method:We explained the proposed model and reported on 15 online interviews to capture comments and suggestions. Three researchers applied the Grounded Theory (GT) procedures to extract actions to improve the business model. Results: 25 suggestions to improve the proposed business model emerged. Finally, we use the business model concepts and subdomains to both define the suggestions to be adopted and identify opportunities for future work. Conclusion: The first version of the business model for independent studios in GSECO reached a high level of relevance in its first evaluation. Some interviewees highlighted the differential of the model in directing the construction of a digital game business contextualized in the Brazilian scenario and how the tool can directly contribute to the maturity of the industry. As future work, we identified the need to expand the model for all subdomains and new evaluation with actors from different regions
J.M. Akkermans and Jaap Gordijn. 2003. Value-based requirements engineering: exploring innovative e-commerce ideas. Requirements Engineering 8, 2 (2003), 114–134.
Mutaz M Al-Debei and David Avison. 2010. Developing a unified framework of the business model concept. European Journal of Information Systems 19, 3 (2010), 359–376.
N Berg. 2015. Business Model Evolution in the Game Software Ecosystem. Master’s thesis. Universiteit Utrecht.
Clodis Boscarioli, Renata Araujo, and Rita Suzana. 2017. I GranDSI-BR Grand Research Challenges in Information Systems in Brazil 2016-2026 Organized by. 184 pages.
Jan Bosch. 2009. From software product lines to software ecosystems. In Proceedings of the Software Product Lines, 13th International Conference, SPLC 2009(ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Vol. 446), Dirk Muthigand John D. McGregor (Eds.). Carnegie Mellon University, USA, 111–119.
H. Bouwman, E. Faber, T. Haaker, B. Kijl, and M. De Reuver. 2008. Conceptualizing the STOF Model. In Mobile Service Innovation and Business Models. Springer Berlin Heidelberg, 31–70.
Ramon Casadesus-Masanell and Joan Enric Ricart. 2010. From Strategy to Business Models and onto Tactics. Long Range Planning 43, 2-3 (2010), 195–215.
Kathy Charmaz. 2014. Grounded Theory in Global Perspective. Qualitative Inquiry 20, 9 (2014), 1074–1084.
Henry Chesbrough. 2007. Business model innovation: it’s not just about technology anymore. Strategy & leadership 35, 6 (2007), 12–17.
Juliet Corbin and Anselm Strauss. 2008. Basics of Qualitative Research: Techniques and Procedures for Developing Grounded Theory (3 ed.). SAGE Publications, Inc., Thousand Oaks, California, USA.
Giuditta De Prato, Sven Lindmark, and Jean Paul Simon. 2012. The Evolving European Video Game Software Ecosystem. In The Video Game Industry: Formation, Present State, and Future, Peter Zackariasson and Timothy L Wilson (Eds.). Routledge, USA, Chapter 8, 221–243.
Afonso Fleury, Davi Nakano, and JHDO Cordeiro. 2014. I Census of the Brazilian Digital Games Industry. NPGT-USP e BNDES, São Paulo, Brasil. [link].
Guo Freeman and Nathan J McNeese. 2019. Exploring indie game development: Team practices and social experiences in A creativity-centric technology community. Computer Supported Cooperative Work (CSCW) 28, 3 (2019), 723–748.
Rashina Hoda, James Noble, and Stuart Marshall. 2011. Grounded theory for geeks. In 18th Conference on Pattern Languages of Programs. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 24:1–24:17.
Mark W Johnson, Clayton M Christensen, and Henning Kagermann. 2008. Reinventing your business model. Harvard Business Review 86, 12 (2008), 57–68.
Zhenya Lindgardt, Martin Reeves, George Stalk Jr., and Michael Deimler. 2015. Business Model Innovation: When the Game Gets Tough, Change the Game. In Own the Future. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 291–298.
Ana Flávia Machado, Bárbara Freitas Paglioto, and Tereza Bruzzi de Carvalho. 2018. Creative Industries in Brazil: Analysis of Specifics Cases for a Country in Development. Theoretical Economics Letters 08, 07 (2018), 1348–1367.
Konstantinos Manikas. 2016. Revisiting software ecosystems research: A longitudinal literature study. Journal of Systems and Software 117 (2016), 84–103.
Matti Mäntymäki, Sami Hyrynsalmi, and Antti Koskenvoima. 2019. How do small and medium-sized game companies use analytics? An attention-based view of game analytics. Information Systems Frontiers 22 (2019), 1–16.
Gevã Martins, Welington Veiga, Fernanda Campos, Victor Ströele, José Maria N David, and Regina Braga. 2018. Building Educational Games from a Feature Model. In Proceedings of the XIV Brazilian Symposium on Information Systems. Association for Computing Machinery, New York, NY, USA, 1–7.
Micheal Morris, Minet Schindehutte, James Richardson, and Jeffrey Allen. 2006. Is the business model a useful strategic concept? Conceptual, theoretical, and empirical insights. Journal of Small Business Strategy 17, 1 (2006), 27–50.
Vlad Nae, Radu Prodan, Alexandru Iosup, and Thomas Fahringer. 2011. A new business model for massively multiplayer online games. In Proceeding of the 2nd joint WOSP/SIPEW international conference on Performance engineering, ICPE 2011. ACM Press.
Beatriz Neto, Lucia Fernandes, Claudia Werner, and Jano Moreira de Souza. 2009. Reuse in digital game development. In Proceedings of the 4th International Conference on Ubiquitous Information Technologies & Applications (Fukuoka, Japan). IEEE, 1–6.
Alexander Osterwalder and Yves Pigneur. 2010. Business model generation: a handbook for visionaries, game changers, and challengers. John Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA.
Adamantia G Pateli and George M Giaglis. 2004. A research framework for analysing eBusiness models. European Journal of Information Systems 13, 4 (2004), 302–314.
Luiz Ojima Sakuda and Ivelise Fortim. 2018. II Census of the Brazilian Digital Games Industry. Ministério da Cultura, Brasília, Brasil. [link].
Rodrigo Santos. 2017. Ecossistemas de Software no Projeto e Desenvolvimento de Plataformas para Jogos e Entretenimento Digital. In Anais do XVI Simpósio Brasileiro de Jogos e Entretenimento Digital. SBC, Curitiba, PR, Brasil, 1327–1337.
Rodrigo Santos and Cláudia Werner. 2011. A Proposal for Software Ecosystems Engineering. In 3rd International Workshop on Software Ecosystems, Vol. 746. CEUR-WS.org, 40–51.
Rodrigo Santos, Cláudia Werner, Olavo Barbosa, and Carina Alves. 2012. Software Ecosystems: Trends and Impacts on Software Engineering. In 26th Brazilian Symposium on Software Engineering. IEEE Computer Society, Los Alamitos, CA, USA, 206–210.
Rodrigo Santos and Cláudia Maria Lima Werner. 2012. ReuseECOS: An Approach to Support Global Software Development through Software Ecosystems. In IEEE 7th International Conference on Global Software Engineering Workshops. IEEE, Porto Alegre, Brazil, 60–65.
Victor Travassos Sarinho. 2017. Uma proposta de game design canvas unificado. In Anais do XVI SBGames. 141–148.
Alexander Serebrenik and Tom Mens. 2015. Challenges in Software Ecosystems Research. In 2015 European Conference on Software Architecture Workshops. ACM, New York, NY, USA, 40:1–40:6.
Janice Singer, Susan E Sim, and Timothy C Lethbridge. 2008. Software engineering data collection for field studies. In Guide to Advanced Empirical Software Engineering. Springer, London, 9–34.
Joost M. Vervoort. 2019. New frontiers in futures games: leveraging game sector developments. Futures 105(2019), 174–186.
Zhihuan Wang and Helana Scheepers. 2012. Understanding the intrinsic motivations of user acceptance of hedonic information systems: towards a unified research model. Communications of the Association for Information Systems 30, 1(2012), 17.
Bernd W. Wirtz, Oliver Schilke, and Sebastian Ullrich. 2010. Strategic Development of Business Models: Implications of the Web 2.0 for Creating Value on the Internet. Long Range Planning 43, 2 (2010), 272–290. Business Models.
Bruno Xavier, Renata Araujo, and Rodrigo Santos. 2018. Explorando o Ecossistema de Software de Jogos Digitais no Município do Rio de Janeiro. In Anais do XVII Simpósio Brasileiro de Jogos e Entretenimento Digital. SBC, Foz do Iguaçu, PR, Brasil, 1526–1533.
David Zendle, Rachel Meyer, Paul Cairns, Stuart Waters, and Nick Ballou. 2020. The prevalence of loot boxes in mobile and desktop games. Addiction 115, 9 (2020), 1768–1772.
Christoph Zott and Raphael Amit. 2010. Business Model Design: An Activity System Perspective. Long Range Planning 43, 2-3 (2010), 216–226.
Christoph Zott, Raphael Amit, and Lorenzo Massa. 2011. The Business Model: Recent Developments and Future Research. Journal of Management 37, 4 (2011), 1019–1042.